Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

Persian Rugs Persian Carpets and Oriental Rugs Oriental Carpets

Hagop Manoyan Antique RugsNazmiyal Antique Rugs

I worry about my dear friend Harold Keshishian. Today he did not make it in to the store until a few minutes before closing time. It turned out that he was busy mowing grass at his farm. About 4 acres by himself plus other chores. He had so much energy left over that he helped me turn down the 8 by 10 pile we had just shown a customer. Harold is an amazing man.
If you ever want to see me stop by Mark Keshishian & Sons on Saturdays.

Rugs as language, two groups with a Kurdish Accent.
Over the years I have assembled a theory that weaving is a form of language. That closely related languages will share similarities in diction and grammar and that rug weaving groups follow the same pattern with weave and structure which is the diction and grammar of this non-verbal aspect of language. Two closely related groups are the Sanandaji (Sine'i, Sina'i, Sineyi) and the Garrusi (Bijari). I pulled a few examples that show enough detail that someone might see what I am saying. Why do they use eccentric wefts? It is because that is their language. See

I am struck by the magnificence of how this rug must have looked extant. Karapinar Carpet Fragment Late 16th C lot 66

I have been meddling in the nice Turkotek discussion. Just because they won't let me me in doesn't mean I can't comment and I have been having fun with the discussion. Call me crazy but I find it helps me to learn about rugs. For instance I knew what a Bijar kilim looks like but I never knew that eccentric wefts are called eccentric wefts until I had to figure out how to explain what my eyes and fingers taught me over the years. Here are a few of my latest blog entries: Sue Zimmerman never ceases to amaze me. - Bijari kilims have a particular weave - "Filiberto, how do you know they are Avar. "

What is an Eccentric Weft
I was amazed that I could not find an eccentric weft image on my site or in my library.
I was looking for Marla Mallett's book when I found Pete Stone's Oriental Rug Lexicon. The image to the left is from that wonderful and useful book.
Both Senneh (Seni'e) and Bijari Kurds use eccentric wefts. In the detail shot of the Ryley kilim the "zipper" areas seem to precise. When the wefts are not straight one expects less mechanical precision in the finer details. When I am at Keshishian's on Saturday I will try to find a good example to image.
I founded a new blog:
Turkotek Watch

How can you tell the difference between an Azeri and a Bijari Kilim
In the Turkotek discussion
Request for Persian? kilim ID some of the guys missed an attribution. the are calling the fellows kilim a Bijar. I am suggesting that it is Azeri. It is really an easy call. Bijar and Senneh Kilims are different in a way that Marla Mallett calls, "Slit tapestry. Many of the wefts are eccentric." If the Kilim has eccentric wefts then I apologize but from what I saw is that the wefts are straight on a horizontal plain. Straight wefts are not typical of a Bijari/Garusi Kilim. By the way when I am saying Bijari I am not referring to location I am specifying a Kurdish weaver who is in the Bijari Ethno-Linguistic group. But Bijari Kurds tend to live near Bijar.

Ushak Medallion Carpet 16th Century from the Ulu Mosque Divrigi

I am content for the process of discovery to stretch out for years but every now and then I trip over something important. One idea that I had been roughing out over the years was the relationship between Ushak Medallion Carpet and the Persianate floral form field motifs. I was standing in front of a Ushak Medallion Carpet at Jim Dixon's when I finally put it together. We can come up with a very accurate relative dating system. Put simply the key is the minor field floral forms. The closer they are to the flowers of Persian art in the 1540s the older they are. To me it indicates that these are copied from Persian Art. Walter Denny suggests that there is a transitory tile phase where carpets are always copied from tile and never from paper.
with contributions from Josephine Powell and Dr. Serife Atlihan,
"NOMADS IN ANATOLIA.  Encounters with a Vanishing Culture" is now available.
For Mail Order Please Send a Check to:
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110 S. Front Street Unit 500,
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A Correction from Craig Wallen
"I just thought I'd mention something I noticed on your site. At one point, you mention 'to the left we see Iris blossoms in the Lappets of
Silk and Metal Thread Ottoman Voided Yastik'.  I think that might not be horticulturally accurate. My understanding of the floral device used in those lappets is actually that of a hyacinth, which along with the tulip and carnation, was a favored flower in Ottoman gardens, art and imagery (ceramic, textile, etc).  You may want to look into that a bit more. Just a thought...

Corrections like this are much appreciated. This collection of web sites is a learning experience for me and when people are kind enough to send in corrections it is a big help.
A Turkotek Kilim Question
On Turkotek Peter Ryley asked a question
Request for Persian? kilim ID. He got an answer that it was Kurdish,which I think it was slightly off the mark. The kilim is an Azeri kilim. We see them in Georgia where they are called Pardaghy and in Azerbaijan where they are called Azeri kilims. they are also found in Iran's Eastern Azerbaijan province. I think this one is Iranian. They are sometimes sold as Shahsavan but I do not believe that they are. If you get it cleaned have them be careful with the dyes, the newer ones tend to use unstable chemical dyes.

What does a top Oriental Rug dealer and former president of ORRA do in his spare time? Mark Keshishian the Chevy Chase rug icon vents his right wing venom logic in his new blog Freedom and justice for all :-)

Thoughts on a Walter Denny Article
As many of you know I work near Washington DC but my home is in Pennsylvania so I have a little place in Maryland to stay in. The place is a jumble of books, magazines and computers. So anyway as I was shutting things down last night I spotted a corner of an old Magazine buried under a pile of other magazines and it called out to me. Well not really but in a pile of Hali magazines I had an irresistible urge to read Hali vol. II no 1.
It was truly a serendipitous event since it contained
Professor Walter Denny's article "The Origins of the Designs of Ottoman Court Carpets". Now Walter Denny is an Islamic Art Scholar of International Repute and one of the best men on Turkish tile in the world. Denny has a fascinating theory that in the transference of design to Ottoman court art from other art there is a transitory tile step. As he explains it as "from paper to ceramics and subsequently from ceramics to knotted pile court-design carpets". He mentions Ushak medallion carpets as examples. So as best as I can understand his premise that what we see in both earlier Persian art and in early Ushak medallion carpets must have tile examples. There is one leaf in particular that I use as a marker. The leaf is rendered in the same manner in Persian Court Miniatures circa 1540 and the earliest Ushak medallion carpets. So my thought is that I need to look up the images of the leaves in my notes and match them to the earliest Ushak medallion carpets. If they match as I think they will then all I have to do is find the corresponding imagery in tile and I will at least to my own satisfaction prove Denny right. It is not that I question Walter Denny it is that I respect him so much that I want to come to understand the article and the 1978 ICOC II talk upon which it was based. Now the tough part, it will take months to pull this together.
As I get deeper and deeper into putting together Karapinar Rugs the O'Connell Notes the more convinced I am that Karapinar rugs are distinctive because of the introduction of a Cairene Workshop kilim which spawned Ottoman workshop carpets that then were an influence on the Karapinar village rugs. I am still putting together my ideas but I think they are bearing fruit. I have been reading what I can find on Cairene Carpets and added Cairene Ottoman Carpet Egypt mid 16th century to my notes. I also added Karapinar Iris and Tulip Carpet from Erdmann's 700 Years. I have also been going through my notes books and catalogues looking for Iris blossoms. Fortunately for my theory it is not a common motif in Turkish village rugs. Special thanks to Wendel Swan who has offered much help but as always any mistakes are my own.

Good News:
Parviz Tanavoli Breaks Record at Christie's Dubai ...

and Bad News
The world of Rug Collecting is that much poorer for the loss of Charles Lave on Friday.

Yomud or Yomut?
It is no secret that I consider language as the key to ethnicity. So when I want to understand the relationship between ethnic groups I go to the Ethnologue (Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: 
http://www.ethnologue.com/.) Much to my surprise the Ethnologue draws a distinction between the Yomud and Yomut. They list the Yomud as an ethno-linguistic group in Turkmenistan but they refer to the Yomut as an ethnic group in Iran that speaks Yomud alternate name Yomut. So now I wonder if this is meaningful in rug studies and if we should treat Yomud and Yomut as two different but related weaving groups.in other words can we divide the greater Yomud group into two parts. That said does this give us a way to fit the Eagle Group into this?

Mughal Art The O'Connell Guide a work in progress.

Antique Armenian Folk Textiles from Anatolia
May 2 - June 15, 2008 Gallery51 51 N. 2nd Street Philadelphia, PA 19106
Open Tues. - Sat, 11 - 6; Sun 12 - 6
It is only in the last few years that I ever heard of Craig Wallen and now I hear about him all the time. Craig is suddenly emerging one of the first flight collectable rug and textile dealers nationally. See

(Left) Marash Embroidery (sofreh), Armenian, E. Anatolia, 19th C

May at the Textile Museum (From the TM Calendar)
Saturday, May 3rd 10:30 am. "Nomadic and Workshop Weavings from Fars Province in Iran" by Tom Cook The audience is invited to bring clean, well-vacuumed examples related to the title of the program. Seating is limited, so please arrive early. FREE; no reservations required. Cook was formerly a member of the Board of Trustees of the Textile Museum and is widely respected for his RTAM presentations.

Also May 31 10:30 am. "Have You Got the Blues? Blue Dyes in Textiles" Jeffrey Krauss and R. John Howe. (Jeff is well known for his collection of Japanese textiles especially
Kasuri and R. John for his eclectic taste in Oriental rugs spanning from Turkey to Central Asia.)

Ursula McCracken memorial - 2:00 to 4:00pm, May 10th at the Textile Museum

Textile Museum of Canada Features Afghan War Rugs
""Battleground: War Rugs From Afghanistan," an exhibition to be held in Textile Museum of Canada. War Rugs are carpets which are woven primarily by refugees during the Soviet invasion in 1979 to the end of occupation in 1989. Although this genre of rug does have a weaving history post Soviet occupation, some of the more sought after rugs were woven in 1980's."
See also:
Afghan War Rugs, Afghan War Rugs by Oriental Rug Notes by Barry O'Connell ..., and Guide to the Rugs and Carpets of Afghanistan

I am getting a kick out of the discussion in Hajji Baba 75th Anniversary. by Patrick Weiler > Central Asian fragment. They picked up on a story I told below on how Harold Keshishian acquired the fragment in question and Ulrich Schurmann acquired another section of the same carpet. Well they got going and they almost had me believing the pieces were from two different carpets. Then Steve Price began comparing elems from opposing ends of the same carpet and I realized what he was getting at. In one case in particular I would not have thought that the two ends were from different rugs. I know some people feel it is a sign of their own erudition to knock Turkotek but at times it is a crackling good read and Steve Price is a big part of it.
I had a chance to drive
Harold up to Johns Hopkins in Baltimore Sunday morning and we discussed the fragment that he bought from Asadorian's. Harold insisted that his piece and Schurmann's were from the same carpet. I asked Harold about the two other fragments from the same carpet. Since there was no attractive way to attach the two to the fragment in the show Harold ended up attaching the two together and he gave the joined piece to McCoy Jones. I wonder if they are published?
I also see that Jim Allen noticed that I was talking about him and added the Azerbaijan carpet, South Caucasus/Northwest Persia Circa 1800 Sotheby's lot 22 into his thread on his yellow ground carpet. Jim has a different way of thinking and processing data than most people. Rather than a linear process Jim's process of discovery tends to take an iterative approach. Early in the process he will float an idea and then he writes it up, then later he revises it. His work gets stronger and stronger as the idea matures. It is good to see Jim on Turkotek since it gives him a forum to work out his ideas.

Greek Islands Prayer Rug from Textile Fragments and Turkish Rugs: Yatak Rug Ayiman Area C 1900

I wonder why Jim Allen did not include the  Azerbaijan carpet, South Caucasus/Northwest Persia Circa 1800 Sotheby's lot 22 in his discussion of his yellow ground rug in the Turkotek thread 18th Century Anatolian Turkmen.

Rippon Boswell & Co. CATALOG ON-LINE
Major Spring Auction Saturday, 24th May 2008, at 3.00 p.m.
Rare and antique carpets, flat-weaves, embroideries and textiles including carpets from the Orient Stars Collection and pieces from the Collection Horst und Eva Engelhardt.
Rippon Boswell & Co.
Friedrichstrasse 45
65185 Wiesbaden, Germany
Auctioneer: Detlef Maltzahn, Wiesbaden

"Worm Dangling from the mouth of a bird"
The New York Hajji Baba are having a 75th anniversary exhibition called "Timbuktu To Tibet," at the New York Historical Society. The gang at Turkotek is having a salon on the show and Dr. James Blanchard the rug collector from Bangalore India posted praise of a piece catalogued as "Turkmen Fragment, Central Asia, 18th or 19th Century (Harold Keshishian)". It quickly generated 8 replies and when I mentioned it to Harold he told me the rest of the story. In the late 70s Harold was visiting one of the younger Asadourian brothers (Hagop or Krikor’s son) shop at 276 5th Ave in New York City. In a 4 foot high pile of fragments Harold found this and two other fragments of a very old very worn Turkmen Main Carpet. Try as he might Harold could not find the other half of his elim. So when he left who should Harold run in to but the great German Rug Scholar and friend Dr. Ulrich Schurmann. Harold", Schurmann said, "What is that in your hand". After seeing Harold's find Schurmann returned to the shop and did not leave until he located the other half of the elim which is published in Werner Loges, Turkmen Tribal Rugs, plate 48, 1980.

At a later date Schurmann was visiting with Harold at his Washington DC place when they had a chance to look at this piece again. Starting early in the morning with a stack of rugs and a fifth of vodka Schurmann began his studies. A few hours into the process Dr. Ulrich Schurmann declared with all possible Teutonic authoritative certainty that these designs were of "worm dangling from the mouth of a bird". Harold has admitted to me that he has never been able to make out either the birds or the worms and he has no intention of imbibing enough vodka to make it possible.

This piece is one piece and the borders as they were in the carpet. It is about half of an elim of a Drynak Gul carpet that was about 8 foot across.

Rugs are a product of people. So if we wish to understand who wove the rug we need to understand the people. I have pulled together a list of what people live in the Asian portion of Turkey. People of (Asian) Turkey by Language. I will make it a point to annotate the list with when these groups entered Turkey and what happened to other groups that lived there but are no longer present. For instance there are Northern Caucasian people who arrived in the late 18th and 19th century and there are Armenians who died or were driven out in the late 19th and early 20th century. I only focused on the Asian part of Turkey since it is the primary weaving area.

New on Tea and Carpets; Drawing Oriental Carpet Designs Is An Artform Of Its Own. Nice article, often in the west we pay no attention to the role of the designer. I was struck with the emphasis in Iran on the design and the complexity of the design. The more unique a design is and the less repeat the more valuable the rug is.

Karapinar Tulip Rug from the Philadelphia Museum of Art

How do we date Early Karapinar Carpets?
Not long ago Wendel Swan sent me a picture of the Textile Museum Karapinar tulip long rug. It is a magnificent rug and a very early example of the type but the Textile Museum has it listed as 19th century. How then can the Textile Museum date this rug so late? I think I have it figured out. I don't agree but now I think I understand the rational.

Mae Beattie identified a group of unusual Kilims that she dated to the 17th century. I believe that
Court Kilim from the Ulu Mosque in Divrigi is an example of that group. So if Charlie Ellis accepted Mae Beattie's attribution of 17th century and I am sure he would because I think he helped her with it, then you can understand how he dated the Karapinar Tulip Rug from the Philadelphia Museum of Art to the 18th to 19th century. So if Karapinar Tulip Rug from the Philadelphia Museum of Art is 18th to 19th century then you can understand how Ellis who had a great deal of input on such thing at the Textile Museum would date the Textile Museum Karapinar tulip long rug to the 19th century.

The problem is that a number of rugs are plausibly date dated much earlier such as to Turkish Rugs: Karapinar Long Rug C. 1600 and Turkish Rugs: Karapinar Long Rug from the Vakiflar Museum Circa 1600 - 1700. My thought is that the Ottoman took Egypt in 1517 so why not date the Court Kilim from the Ulu Mosque in Divrigi to circa 1500. After all it is made in the Egyptian manner. So if we date that one to 1500 then we can quiet plausibly date Turkish Rugs: Karapinar Long Rug C. 1600, Turkish Rugs: Karapinar Long Rug from the Vakiflar Museum Circa 1600 - 1700, Textile Museum Karapinar tulip long rug, Turkish Rugs: Karapinar Long Rug Fragment from the Wolf Collection, and Karapinar Yellow Ground Tulip Rug from Berdj Achdjian to circa 1600 and into the 17th century. So where do we put the Karapinar Tulip Rug from the Philadelphia Museum of Art? How about mid 16th century?

Ursula McCracken memorial - 2:00 to 4:00pm, May 10th at the Textile Museum

Family and friends will hold a gathering of remembrance from 2:00 to 4:00pm, May 10th at The Textile Museum in Washington. Ursula requested contributions to the American Pain Foundation, Suite 710, 201 N. Charles St. Baltimore, MD 21201 or the Textile Society of America, P.O. Box 193, Middletown, DE 19709.

See Ursula McCracken memorial - 2:00 to 4:00pm, May 10th at the Textile Museum

L.A. Rug Expert Brian Morehouse weighs in on 18th Century Anatolian Turkmen

The level of discourse on Turkotek certainly has gone up a notch or two since Jim Allen started his 18th Century Anatolian Turkmen thread. Now L.A. Rug Expert Brian Morehouse has jumped into the discussion with both feet. Brian has come out with a variation of the old, Turkish Rugs are Armenian rugs, argument.

See L.A. Rug Expert Brian Morehouse weighs in on 18th Century Anatolian Turkmen

Five Very Special Fragments
After the RTAM at the Textile Museum Harold Keshishian and I ducked out quickly and I drove Harold to another engagement in Upper Northwest. (Harold was on his way to have lunch with Warren Buffett an old friend from Jr. High.) As we drove Harold told me about the five pieces that he had in the program. These rugs were very special for a very unusual reason. All of them were presents to Harold from major dealers and collectors. It used to be a custom for top collectors and dealers to give gifts of important rugs and fragments to up and coming collectors and dealers. Fragments were especially prized by all the big collectors, guys like Joe McMullan, Hagop Kevorkian, Ralph Yohe, and Russ Pickering prized them. In fact the two big Indo-Persian fragments on the right were presents from Ralph Yohe, The square Indo-Persian fragment above and too the right of the other two was a gift of Magda Shapiro a top London dealer. (I was especially interested in this one since it had that orange that Ellis used as a marker for Herat.) The two smaller Mughal fragments were a present from Harry Bolsen who ran J.H. Dildarian, Inc. for 80 year old a mainstay of the Madison Avenue rug trade.
Harold is like family to me and I learn so much when we get together. The five fragments are great pieces but they mean a lot more when I know the story behind them.

Swan and Walker at the Textile Museum
I made it to the Textile Museum RTAM to hear Wendel Swan and Daniel Walker. Wendel was brilliant. I was really impressed by the creative approach Wendel took to a Karapinar carpet fragment. Dan Walker did a nice job of talking about his collection of classical era fragments. The audience seemed notably surprised when Dan showed a copy of the "Goddess in Anatolia" and used it to relate to some of his fragments. Dan handled it well and made some good points. Walker talked a bit about small silk Kashan rugs and related them to a piece in his collection. His concept of a later silk Kashan rug with Jufti knotting was adventurous but he carried it off well. Both Wendel and I asked questions pointing to a Khorasan attribution for the fragments but Walker stood his ground. Dan and I tend to disagree on many of the attributions of classical carpets but it was easy to see the strong academic qualities that made Dan Walker so attractive to the TM when they drafted him. I think he is best thing to happen to the Textile Museum in years. Obviously the TM is lucky to have such a brilliant and dedicated director. Some of the pieces in the show were Harold Keshishian's but I will talk about them later (above).

Tonight I feel terrible, not sick but my allergies are bothering me. I am not very impressed by the cherry blossoms here in the Washington DC area but I love the Bartlett pear trees even if I am allergic. So between sneezes I added Turkish Rugs: Shield Kazak Rug Anatolia Circa 1900 lot 68, Turkish Rugs: Kozak Rug Circa 1870 lot 55, Turkish Rugs: Kurdish Rug Circa 1880 lot 65, and Turkish Rugs: Konya-Nigde Kilim Circa 1860 lot 66. I am still trying to fill in the gaps in my Turkish rug notes. Tomorrow is Saturday and I am going to Dan Walkers talk at TM if I feel up to it. I work every day except Sunday so I have a new system. I hate to get up and go to work so I have started getting up extra early so I can read the Bible. Then I get up and have a leisurely breakfast. Since I started this I always get to work early and usually in a very good mood. I don't read the Bible because I am a good person, quite the reverse. I am so much more wicked than the average person I need the help. Saturday is my easy day because I help out at Mark Keshishian & Sons. Great people and I love the time with the rugs.

Earlier I provided a link to Rug Rag's stain removal guide. I tried it and it is a nice guide.

Saudi Aramco World has a nice article on Venice and Islam in East Meets West in Venice. Former Textile Museum Trustee Walter Denny a rug expert and professor of art at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst is quoted as saying that the Venetian Republic was “an entrepôt for the importation into Europe of profitable luxury goods such as carpets and textiles, and opened a European door to the Islamic cultures that created those goods,”.

Click to enlarge DOBAG rugs and fair-trade|
By Birte Staerk, DOBAG Carpets, Denmark, 15 April 2008

The topic of fair-trade is very much in the public mind, and the Dobag carpet project is, in my opinion, the essence of fair-trade. The Turkish women involved in the project are paid adequately and fairly for their craftsmanship and quality handwork - and we can buy the carpets with an easy conscience.

Carpets in Western Europe During the Renaissance
Links to photos of extant 15th-17th century carpets, as well as depictions of carpets in 15th and 16th century artwork. I am not sure whose work this is but it is a very useful list of links with brief annotation. At the risk of sounding prideful I love it when I see someone take some of my work and make it part of a greater work.
Take for instance a little article of mine that they included, Domenico Ghirlandaio' s Saint Jerome. I had forgotten that I wrote it and then I find it as a link on someone else's page. It is nothing particularly important but I concluded that Domenico Ghirlandaio used the same rug in Domenico Ghirlandaio' s Saint Jerome and Domenico Ghirlandaio Madonna Enthroned mid 15th century and I wrote about it in Domenico Ghirlandaio and his Rugs. It is nice to have my massive ego assuaged for the day.

Tea and Carpets' A Carpet Of Stone Honors Hamburg As Heart Of Europe's Oriental Rug Trade

Rug Rag's Stain Removal Guide

What is the value of a Seidman and Keshishian presentation?
Just today I was speaking with Cynthia Kosciuczyk who is the manager of 4th Avenue Rug Gallery in San Diego. Cynthia was telling me what a fan she is of the Textile Museum. I had to ask her if she reads John Howe's blog and she was not aware of it. John is a humble guy who puts in countless hours of selfless work to help a wider audience to get more out of the Textile Museum programs. It is well worth visiting John's site.

Take a look at John's 18th and 19th Century Anatolian Carpets: Keshishian and Seidman.

It is a useful and artistic article. John added a small note, "Harold has said to me, recently, that the extent and excellence of Michael Seidman’s preparation for this session is not adequately recognized in what we have said above and this comment is an effort to correct that."

What is the value of a Seidman and Keshishian presentation? No record, no transcripts, no video, virtually no record at all without John. I have documented a few and John is off to a good start documenting more and that is good. Still for the handful available on-line there are more than 30 years of RTAMS lost and gone for ever. 30 years of guys like Keshishian, Seidman, Wendel Swan, John Wertime, Steve Price, Zimmerman, Charlie Ellis, Ulrich Schurmann, and so many other. Still the Textile Museum is a wonderful place and Bruce Baganz and the rest of the board are great guys doing so much with very little. Maybe a good first step if you really value the Textile Museum is to Join, Renew, or just Write them a Check.

Here are some odds and ends from my site:
Long time Trustee John Sommer on Kyrgyz felt at the TM

HK's "Rug Morning" The Introduction

HK's "Rug Morning" The Persian Collection

HK's "Rug Morning" Explosion of Red

HK's "Rug Morning" The Mediterranean Collection

HK's "Rug Morning" Parting Shots

This page is always my most popular but Persian Rugs the O'Connell Guides is my second ,most popular. I was interested in the key words that brought readers to that page. The top 10 searches terms that brought people to that page are:"Kerman rugs", "rug appraisal", "spongobongo.com", "hamadan", "kasak rugs", "persian isfahan rug", "chahal shotur", "gabbeh iran persian", "cartouches on persian carpets", and "kashan rug".

On the dating of Rugs:
“They can't all have been made in 1875, some must be older.” This bon mot from Harold Keshishian is as true today as the day he said it. For a number of reasons if a rug looks old dealers or auction houses have traditionally dated it to circa 1875. This is mainly because if a rug later is shown to have a chemical dye it is within the range where a chemical dye could have been used. So it is a safe attribution and a huge number of rugs got assigned an attribution of circa 1875. But in that group some are newer and conversely some must be older. We have reached a point where there are a growing number of rugs that considerably predate 1875.

Pioneering work by
Jim Allen working with the Metropolitan Museum of Art as well as that of Dr. Jurg Rageth, c14 (radio carbon dating) became a tool in carpet studies. A growing number of rugs have been dated significantly earlier than 1800 and each discovery makes it possible to date other rugs in the time frame that at one point was thought impossible.

Once Jim Allen's
17th century Tekke Juval was dated Circa 1656 it made it possible for others to suggest a rug was of a certain date in relationship to other rugs. It has become what I call a marker rug. Since as far as I know it is the oldest Tekke weaving to date it allows people to use it as a marker in dating their Tekke weaving. More to come...

Copyright Barry O'Connell 2004 - 2007.
Last revised: June 06, 2008.

email me at JBOC@SpongoBongo.Com

Tabriz Rugs & Carpets the O'Connell Guide

Persian Rugs the O'Connell Guides

18th and 19th Century Anatolian Carpets: Keshishian and Seidman

Oriental Carpets and Persian Rugs the O'Connell Notes April 27, 2008

Chinese Rugs Guide

Persian Rugs

Persian Rugs: Abadeh

Persian Rugs: Abadeh

Caucasian Rugs: Afshan

Persian Rugs: Afshar

Persian Rugs: Afshar

Persian Rugs: Ahar

Caucasian Rugs: Akstafa

Caucasian Rugs: Alpan

Persian Rugs: American Sarouk

Persian Rugs: American Sarouk Carpets

Persian Rugs: Arak

Persian Rugs: Ardabil

Persian Rugs: Ardekan

Persian Rugs: Bakhshaish

Persian Rugs: Bakshaish Rugs

Persian Rugs: Baluch Prayer Rugs

Persian Rugs: Bakhtiari

Persian Rugs: Bakhtiari

Caucasian Rugs: Baku

Persian Rugs: Bijar

Persian Rugs: Bijar

Persian Rugs: Birjand

Persian Rugs: Borchelu

Persian Rugs: Dorokhsh

Persian Rugs: East

Persian Rugs:Enjelas

Persian Rugs: Enjilas

Turkmen Rugs: Ersari

Persian Rugs: Ferahan

Persian Rugs: Feraghan

Persian Rugs: Ghoochan

Persian Rugs: Golpayegan Caucasian Rugs: Fachralo Kazak

Persian Rugs: Hamadan

Persian Rugs: Hamadan

Persian Rugs: Heriz

Persian Rugs: Heriz

Persian Rugs: Isfahan

Persian Rugs: Isfahan

Persian Rugs: Jaf Kurd

Persian Rugs: Josheghan

Persian Rugs: Kabutar Ahangh

Persian Rugs: Karaja

Persian Rugs: Kashan

Persian Rugs:Kashan

Persian Rugs: Kashan Souf

Persian Rugs: Kashmar

Persian Rugs: Kerman

Persian Rugs: Kerman

Persian Rugs: Khamseh Confederation

Persian Rugs: Khamseh Confederation

Persian Rugs: Khamseh

Persian Rugs: Kurdish

Persian Rugs: Kurdish

Persian Rugs: Koliai/

Persian Rugs: Kolyai/Sonqur

Persian Rugs: Lavar Kerman

Persian Rugs: Lilihan

Persian Rugs: Luri

Persian Rugs: Luri Bags

Persian Rugs: Luri Gabbehs

Persian Rugs: Lylyan

Persian Rugs: Mahabad

Persian Rugs: Mahal

Malayer Persian Rugs:

Malayer Persian Rugs:

Mashad Persian Rugs:

Mashhad Persian Rugs:

Maslaghan Persian Rugs:

Mazlaghan Persian Rugs:

Mehriban Persian Rugs:

Mohtashem Persian Rugs: Kashan Rugs

Mood Persian Rugs: Rugs

Nahavend Persian Rugs: Persian Rugs: Rugs

Nain Persian Rugs: Rugs

Nain Persian Rugs: Rugs

Persian Rugs: Nehavend

Persian Rugs: Persian Bags

Persian Rugs: Persian Bags

Persian Rugs: Kilim, Sumac and Covers

Persian Rugs: Prayer Rugs

Persian Rugs: By Name

Persian Rugs: Salt bags

Persian Rugs: Polonaise

Persian Rugs: Qashqai Kelim

Persian Rugs: Qashqai

Persian Rugs: Qashqai

Persian Rugs: Qum

Persian Rugs: Qum

Persian Rugs: Resht

Persian Rugs: Sabzavar

Persian Rugs: Saddle Rugs

Persian Rugs: Sanandaj

Persian Rugs: Sarab

Turkmen Rugs: Saryk

Persian Rugs: Sarough

Persian Rugs: Sarouk

Persian Rugs: Sarouk

Persian Rugs: Seirafian of Isfahan

Persian Rugs: Senneh

Persian Rugs: Serapi and Serab

Persian Rugs: Shahsavan

Persian Rugs: Shahsevan

Persian Rugs: Shahsavan Sumac Bags

Persian Rugs: Shiraz

Persian Rugs: Silk

Persian Rugs: Sirjan

Persian Rugs: Sonqur

Persian Rugs: Sonqur

Persian Rugs: Sultanabad

Persian Rugs: Tabriz

Persian Rugs: Tabriz

Persian Rugs: Tafresh

Turkmen Rugs: Tekke

Turkmen Rugs: Tekke Chuvals

Persian Rugs: Haji Jalili Tabriz

Persian Rugs: Touserkan

Persian Rugs: Vagireh

Persian Rugs: Veramin

Persian Rugs: Viss

Persian Rugs: Wagireh

Persian Rugs: Yazd

Persian Rugs: Yezd

Persian Rugs: Zanjan

Turkmen Rugs/Turkmen Rugs

Turkmen Rugs: Arabachy

Turkmen Rugs: Namazlyk

Turkmen Rugs: Dictionary.

Turkmen Rugs: Eagle Group

Turkmen Rugs: Salyr

Turkmen Rugs: Yomut

Baluch Rugs

Arab Baluch Rugs

Baluch Balisht and Pushti

Baluch Group Prayer Rugs

Baluch Type Rugs of Zabol Iran

Bahlul Baluchi rug

Uzbek Rugs

Uzbek Rugs: Julkhyr

Uzbek Rugs: Napramach


Nurata Suzani

Shakhrisabz Suzani


Caucasian Rugs

Caucasian Rugs

Caucasian Rugs: Bordjalou

Caucasian Rugs: Flatweaves

Caucasian Rugs: Prayer Rugs

Caucasian Rugs: Kazak Chelaberd

Caucasian Rugs: Daghestan

Caucasian Rugs: Dragon

Caucasian Rugs: Ganja/Gendge

Caucasian Rugs: Georgian Pardaghys

Caucasian Rugs: Karabagh Rugs

Caucasian Rugs: Karachopf Gardabani

Caucasian Rugs: Kazak

Caucasian Rugs: Karabagh

Caucasian Rugs: Karachopf Gardabani

Caucasian Rugs: Kazak

Persian Rugs: Khamseh Confederation

Caucasian Rugs: Kuba

Caucasian Rugs: Lori Pambak Kazak

Caucasian Rugs: Marasali

Caucasian Rugs: Pin-wheel Kazaks

Caucasian Rugs: Seychour

Caucasian Rugs: Star Kazak

Caucasian Rugs: Shahsevan

Caucasian Rugs: Shirvan

Caucasian Rugs: Zakatala

Turkish Rugs/Turkish Rugs



New York Times Article

Greek Rugs

The Hazara

Islamic Art

Kirghis Rugs

The Pazyryk Carpet

McMullan on the Pazaryk

Moroccan Carpets

Rugs of Palestine

Rugs and Textiles

Notes on the Shaykh Lutfallah Mosque

Time and Links

Guide to the Best Rug Societies

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Alabama

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Arizona

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of California

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Colorado

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Delaware

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Florida

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Georgia

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Hawaii

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Illinois

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Indiana

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Kansas

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Kentucky

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Maryland

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Massachusetts

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Missouri

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of New Hampshire

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of New Jersey

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of New Mexico

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of New York

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Oregon

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Pennsylvania

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Tennessee

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Texas

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Vermont

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Virginia

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Washington

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Washington DC

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Italy

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of Germany

Guide to the Best Carpet Producers and Dealers of Turkey

Guide to the Best Carpet Dealers of the United Kingdom

Naein Rugs By Ehsan Afzalzadeh Naini Of Iran Rug Co.

Guide to the Best Carpet Producers and Dealers of Iran

Guide to the Best Auction Houses

Guide to the Best Book Dealers

Guide to the Best Carpet Cleaners and Restorers

Guide to the Best Carpet Producers and Dealers of Central Asia

Guide to the Best Rug & Carpet Appraisers

Old Main page - SW-Asia.com More Oriental Rug Notes by Barry O'Connell

Oriental Carpets and Persian Rugs the O'Connell Notes Oct 2007

Oriental Carpets and Persian Rugs the O'Connell Notes Mar-08

Oriental Carpets and Persian Rugs the O'Connell Notes March 19, 08

Oriental Carpets and Persian Rugs the O'Connell Notes April 6, 2008

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Turkish Rugs


Oriental Rugs

Persian Carpets

Baluch Rugs,

The Qashqai and Qashqai Rugs

Veramin Rugs

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