Hagop Manoyan Antique Rugs

JBOC's Notes on Oriental Rugs

 
Hagop Manoyan Antique RugsNazmiyal Antique Rugs

Turkmen Rugs: Guide to Yomud Weaving

Is it Yomud or Yomut? Therein begins the problem in understanding the Yomud. Scholars refer to the Yomud of Iran as Yomud and the Yomud of Turkmenistan as Yomut.

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Jafarbai Yomut Rug

The Dr. Jon Thompson Ak Yup Tent Band
The Thompson Ak Yup Tent Band

Following Russian General Petroosevitch in 1881: "The Yomuds are divided into the following branches or clans:

  • “(Tchoni) Ak-Atabai.” Branches:

    • Ak-Atabai,

    • Ak-Daz,

    • Ak-Aimeer,

    • Ak-Badrak,

    • Ak-Eekdeer,

    • Ak-Kadjak,

    • and Ak-Kan-Youkmaz.

“(Sharif) Jafarbai.” Branches: Sharif-Noorali and Sharif- Yarali.

  • "These two divisions are further sub-divided: — "
    The Noorali into:

    • Kelte,

    • Karindjik,

    • Kesh (Kazanlekor),

    • Koyounlekor,

    • Pang,

    • and Devedji. “

  • The Yarali into:

    • Ovnookh,

    • Ovnookh-Too-madj,

    • Kizil-Tchookhan,

    • and Arrik-Sakkali."

    The following are their numbers: — Jafarbai. Atabai. "Chomoor. 3,500 tents 2,500 tents. "Charva. . 4,500 „ 4,500 „
    8,000 tents 7,000 tents.

    "Total of Yomuds. 15,000 tents. "

  • Of these, 9,000 kibitkas pass yearly eight months on the Russian side of the Atrek, and 1,000 more are permanent settlers on our territory ; the remaining 5,000 do not cross the Atrek, and dwell always on Persian soil. These figures are derived from my own inquiries in North Persia, and from those of Consul Bakouline at Astrabad. "

Section Guides for Yomut weaving

Guide to Yomud Asmalyks

Guide to Yomud Carpets

Guide to Yomud Ensis

Guide to The Yomud Juval

Guide to The Yomut Mafrash

Guide to The Yomut Okbash

Guide to The Yomut Tent Band

Guide to The Yomut Torba

Miscellaneous


Sotheby's Yomut brocaded flatweave

Antique Yomut Bokche
Antique Yomut Bokche

The History of the Yomut 1855 to 1873

From 1855 to 1867 the Yomut were in revolt against the Khan of Khiva. Library of Congress. This weakened the Khivan Khanate and attracted the attention of Czarist Russia. In 1869 the Russians set out from Port Perovsk (Makhachkala) to establish outposts east of the Caspian Sea. They set up forts at at Krasnovodsk and Chikishlar. It was from Krasnovodsk that the Czarist troops began to probe the Turcomen lands in the east. The Fall of Khiva. "East of Khiva, the Kyzyl Kum north of Bokhara was surveyed and explored by small detachments during 1871 and 1872. Similar missions were performed by troops from Orenburg between Emba and the Aral Sea." Hinson, The Fall of Khiva.

In the spring of 1873 the Russians attacked. "On May 8, 1873 the Orenburg Column marched into the city of Kungrad, the most important settlement in the northern part of the Khanate. Muhammad Rahim's forces had abandoned the town only hours before." Hinson, The Fall of Khiva. The Russians captured Khiva and Khan Sayid Muhammad Rahim II on May 29, 1873. Khanate of Khiva 1511-1920.

"On July 7, Major General Golovachev was sent into Yomut territory, located west of Khiva, with eight infantry companies, eight sotnias of Cossacks, a battery each of guns and rockets, and two mitrailleuses which had been dragged to Khiva by the Tashkent Column. The savagery with which the Yomud Turkmen were punished over the next two weeks came from the Governor-General himself. In his orders to Golovachev, Kaufman stated that the general was to give over the Yomud settlements, and their families, to complete destruction. If the soldiery met any resistance at all, the troops were to "exterminate" the opposition. The resulting slaughter spared neither age nor sex as the Russians, and especially the Cossacks, "rushed about like madmen"." Hinson, The Fall of Khiva.

"A peace treaty signed on 12 August 1873 established the status of the Khanate as a Russian protectorate. The Khan declared himself the "obedient servant" of the Russian emperor, and all territories of the Khanate on the right bank of the Amu Darya River were annexed to Russia." Khanate of Khiva 1511-1920 Blocked by his government from annexing the (entire) Khanate, Kaufman managed to force the Khan to cede all of his lands north of the Amu Darya to the conquerors. Furthermore, the Russians obtained the right of residence, the right to trade tax-free in Khiva, and an indemnity of 202 million rubles to be paid over a twenty year period." Hinson, The Fall of Khiva. The subjugation of the Khanate had little effect on the internal affairs of the country, in which Russia interfered only in order to put down several Turkmen " Khanate of Khiva 1511-1920

Late 1873 "Short of money for the return to Tashkent, Kaufman ordered the other Turkmen tribes in Khivan territory to pay their shares of the fine, some 301,000 rubles. Becoming somewhat more reasonable, he allowed them to pay half the sum in camels and the other half in either coin or gold or silver jewelry and other objects. They were given from July 21 to August 2 to pay. The punishment of the Yomut had its desired effect on the other Turkmen bands. At the deadline, some 92,000 rubles had been collected, and as there was evidence of intent to pay, Kaufman allowed an indefinite extension to the payment deadline. To insure full payment, he took 26 hostages from among the families of Turkmen notables." Hinson, The Fall of Khiva.

So what does this mean to us as rug collectors?

So 1873 becomes the a crucial defining point. When I say "early" I mean pre-1873. The rugs from before the Czarist era are very different from Yomut rugs of 1880 - 1890. The latter we go the more predictable and mechanical in execution the weave becomes. I suggest that pieces like this Asmalyk were woven as dowry pieces. That the added care and extravagance of offset knotting is a sign of special care for traditional use in the context of the Yomut Turkmen wedding. In the Czarist era these dowry pieces became the exception and the vast majority of Yomut weaving was commercial weaving for the Russian market.

As to age it is difficult to narrow down age too much. Besides the Czarist invasion there was also the revolt against Khiva and the dispersal of the tribe. Some of what some people call circa 1870 may actually be 1920 and some of what we call "early" may be well before 1870 but I suggest that evidence of variation in structure may give us important clues to figuring out which is which.


Thanks and best wishes,

J. Barry O'Connell Jr.


Persian Rugs the O'Connell Guides

 

Antique Agra Rugs
Antique Alcaraz Rugs
Antique Amristar Rugs
Antique Bakshaish Rugs
Antique Bessarabian Rugs
Antique Bezalel Rugs
Antique Bidjar Rugs
Antique Bijar Rugs
Antique Cairene Rugs
Antique Chinese Rugs
Antique Ghiordes Rugs
Antique Hereke Rugs
Antique Heriz Rugs
Antique Karabagh Rugs
Antique Kashan Rugs
Antique Kerman Rugs
Antique Khorassan Rugs
Antique Khotan Rugs
Antique Konya Rugs
Antique Oushak Rugs
Antique Sarouk Farahan
Antique Serapi Rugs
Antique Senneh Rugs
Antique Sultanabad Rugs
Antique Tabriz Rugs
Antique Tabriz Haji Jalili Rugs

Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Arizona
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of California
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Canada
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Colorado
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Connecticut
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of England
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Florida
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Georgia
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Illinois
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Indiana
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Italy
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Louisiana
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Maryland
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Michigan
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Missouri
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Nevada
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of New Hampshire
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of New Jersey
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of New Mexico
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of New York
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of North Carolina
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Oregon
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Pennsylvania
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Rhode Island
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Scotland
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of South Carolina
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Texas
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Tennessee
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Turkey
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Washington
Guide to the Best Oriental Rug and Carpet Cleaners and Restorers of Wisconsin

Index to JBOC's Rug Notes

How Do I Find An Honest Rug Dealer?

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