Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

Barry O'Connell's Oriental and Persian Rug Notes

Hagop Manoyan Antique RugsNazmiyal Antique Rugs

Rug Notes Index - A

Abbas (the Great) Safavi.


Abbot, N.

  • Abbot, N. (1939). "The rise of the North Arabic Script and its Kur'anic development". Chicago.

`Abd al-Razzaq,

  • `Abd al-Razzaq, Ahmad. "Mishkah Mamlukiyah bi-Ism al-Amir Husayn ibn Jandar Bik: Dirasah Tarikhiyah Athariyah" in Majallat al-Mu'arrikh al-`Arabi. Vol. 36. 1988. 195-220.

`Abd al-Wahhab, Hasan.

  • `Abd al-Wahhab, Hasan. "al-Athar al-Manqulah wa-al-Muntahalah fi al-`Imarah al-Islamiyah" in BIE. Vol. 38: No. 2. 1956-1957. 243-283.

  • `Abd al-Wahhab, Hasan. "al-`Imarah wa-al-Sina`ah fi Khitat al-Maqrizi" in Dirasat `an al-Maqrizi: Majmu`at Abhath. Muhammad Mustafá Ziyadah et al. (edited by). Cairo: al-Hay'ah al-Misriyah al-`Ammah lil-Ta'lif wa-al-Nashr, 1971. 49-73.

Abd as-Saman

The Abdali Pashtun of Afghanistan

Abdollah-e Mozahheb (also Abdullah Sirazi)

  • Artist  best known for his work at the court of Ibrahim Mirza.

  • Produced recognizable work from the 1550s to the 1590

  • See Plate 70: Ustad Abdollah

Abdul-Hak, Sélim.

  • Abdul-Hak, Sélim. "Contribution à l'étude de la verrerie musulmane du VIIIe au XVe siècles" in al-Hawliyat al-Athariyah al-`Arabiyah al-Suriyah. Vol. 8-9. 1958-1959. 3-20.


  • Abdulla or Abdullah is the United Front's chief official for foreign affairs.

  • Dr. Abdullah is considered by many to represent the moderate Pro-US faction of the United Front.

Abdullah Khan II

  • Abdullah Khan II (1533-98).

  • Abdullah Khan II reigned 1557-98. Considered the last and greatest Shaybanid Uzbeks ruler in Bukhara, Abdullah Khan II (1533-98).

  • Abdullah Khan gained control of the Shaybanid Uzbek Ulus with the backing of the Sufi Shaykh Kwaja Sa'd al-Din Juybari.

  • The last decade of his life he made Herat a great cultural center in a period I call the Uzbek Renaissance. 

Abdur Rahman Khan, Amir of Afghanistan

Abel, Armand.

  • Abel, Armand. Gaibi et les grands faïenciers égyptiens d'époque mamlouke. Publications du Musée arabe du Caire. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale, 1930.

Aber, Ita.

Abideen, Zainul.

Abis, Mark.


  • The ritual purification prior to prayer five times a day.

Abr silk

Abrahamian, Valentina.

  • Abrahamian, Valentina. Arts and Crafts in Armenia, IX-XVI Centuries, Erevan, 1946.


  • Area of shade change inside of one color in the pile of a rug. This is often attributable to a difference in dye lots or a difference in the underlying wool color. If sand and tan wool are both died blue they can look the same when new but after many years can become of different shades. There is also deliberate fake abrash where weavers weave in bands of different shades to give it an antique or village look. One humorous aspect of this is that in a book by a German Expert (Heinrich Jacoby) abrash was translated as hairbrush. Just as amusing is that some people laugh at Jacoby not realizing it was a translators mistake.

Abu Bakr

  • Abu Bakr was the Father of A'ishah, who was the favorite wife of the Prophet Muhammad. After the death of the Prophet Muhammad Abu Bakr became the first caliph.

  • Abu Bakr known as as-Siddiq (the faithful) consolidated the victories in Arabia and freed slaves in the Arabian Peninsula who were persecuted for following the Prophet Muhammad. He is one of the two disciples (the other was Ali ibn Abi Talib) who transmitted the Tasawwuf.

Abu Khalaf, Marwan F.

  • Abu Khalaf, Marwan F. "Three Islamic Candlesticks from the Islamic Museum of al-Haram al-Sharif, Jerusalem" in Levant. Vol. 20. 1988. 238-244.

Abu Nidal Organization

Abu Sayyaf Group

  • Khadaffy Janjalani is the leader of Abu Sayyaf.

  • Abu Sabaya, is the spokesman of Abu Sayyaf.

  • Deborah Yap is a Philippine nurse who was kidnapped by Abu Sayyaf but at this point it is unclear whether or not she remains with the bandits voluntarily.

Acar, Belkis

Achdjian, A.

  • Achdjian & Fils. Tapis D'Orient Anciens. 1979,

Achdjian, Berdj.

Achdjian and Sons

  • Achdjian, A. Le Tapis / The Rug. 1949,

Acheson, Dean Gooderham

Galerie Acil,

Ackerman, Phyllis


ad-Din, Rashid.

Adahl, Karin.

  • Adahl, Karin. A Khamsa of Nizami of 1439. Uppsala, 1981.

Adams, B.

  • Adams, B. Traditional Bhutanese Textiles. 1984. A second printing in 1968.

Adamec, Ludwig H.

Adamova, A.

  • Dr. Adel T. Adamova, Curator of the Iranian Collections, Oriental Department, State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

  • Adamova, A. "Repetition of Compositions in Manuscripts: The Khamsa of Nizami in Leningrad." In Timurid Art and Culture: Iran and Central Asia in the Fifteenth Century, ed. Lisa Golombek and Maria Subtelny. Supplements to Muqarnas. Leiden, 1992. Pp. 67-75.

  • Adamova, A. T., and L. T. Guzalian. Minyaturi Rukopisi Poeiny 'Shakhnama' 1333 Goda. Leningrad, 1985.

  • Adamova, A., and T. Greck. Miniatures from Kashmitian Manuscripts. Leningrad, 1976.

Achill Teke Horse

  • The propper spelling is Achill Teke but in the West Tekke is still used. This breed of horse is bred by the Teke Turkmen and is one of the bloodlines from which the Thoroughbred horses were bred.

  • The Achill Tekke horse

Samuel Adams School

Adamstown Pa.

  • Adamstown Pa is the so-called antiques mile.  On most weekends there are more than a thousand antique dealers and four times a year on extravaganza weekends the number of dealers drastically increases.  Not strictly a rug event but there are plenty of deals if you look.  Stoudtsburg and Renninger's Antique & Collectors Market are the two main antique centers. Mrs. Stoudt is the top rated microbrewer in the US and her husband Ed serves the best steak in Lancaster County at the Black Angus Inn, which is attached to the Antique mall. 

Adelson, L.

  • Adelson, L. & Takami, B. Weaving Traditions of Highland Bolivia. 1978,

Adle, Chahryar,

Adler, P.

  • Adler, P. & Barnard, N. African Majesty, The Textile Art of the Ashanti and the Ewe. 1992,


  • A valley in Northwest Afghanistan south of Heart. This area is known for the best rug wool in Afghanistan. The wool is very thick with little crimp.

  • Also formerly the name of a great collectable rug store north of San Francisco run by Michael Craycraft and Anne Halley. Closed a few years ago.

  • Tibetan Rugs at Adraskand

  • 83 Afshar

Afghan Alumni

  • In Counter-Terrorism circles, the various terrorists who fought in Afghanistan were called the "Afghan Alumni". This is the same group that the press calls the "Afghan Arabs" At first they were seen as a loosely organized, international networks of terrorists. Later this group is generally referred to as the al-Qaeda network.

Afghan Arabs

  • The "Afghan Arabs" or "Afghan Alumni" are the various terrorists who fought in Afghan. This group is a majority Arab but Germans, Chinese, Filipinos, Pakistanis and others belong and can be called Afghan Arabs.

  • These terrorists are not to be confused with the Arab tribes of Afghan Turkestan.

Afghan Carpet Export Guild

  • Afghan Carpet Export Guild: Afghan Carpets ; Kabul: 1971.

Afghan invasion

  • In 1722 Afghan (Pashtun) tribes invaded Persia and seized the Shah and blinded him. They held the country in a short highly destructive reign.


Afsari, Mohammedullah.

  • Mohammedullah Afsari is a senior aide to Ismail Khan of Herat.


  • A large pattern variant of the Herati pattern that was woven in the Caucasus. This is an older pattern that dates back to the Persian Caucasus period. It was woven into the Russian period but became much less common.


Afshar Massacre

Mansour Afzali, Gallery,

Aga-Oglu, Mehmet.

  • Aga-Oglu, Mehmet Exhibition of Islamic Art, M H de Young Memorial Museum San Francisco 1937.

  • AGA-OGLU, MEHMET. "The Khusrau Wa Shirin Manuscript in the Freer Gallery." An Islamica 4 (1937): 479-8i. -. "Preliminary Notes on Some Persian Illustrated Mss. in the Topkapu Sarayi Milzesi - Part I." Ars Islamica I (1934): 183-99.

  • Aga-Oglu, Mehmet. "About a Type of Islamic Incense Burner" in The Art Bulletin. Vol. 27. 1945. 28-45.

  • Aga-Oglu, Mehmet. "A Brief Note on Islamic Terminology for Bronze and Brass" in JAOS. Vol. 64. 1944. 218-223.

Agha, Aga, or Aqa.

  • Originally a term to denote a eunuch it evolved into a term of respect meaning master or chief.

Aga Muhammad Khan Qajar Shah of Persia

Agha Muhammad Khan Treaty of Turkmanchai Gold Coins

Agha Khan

  • The Agha Khan is the Imam or leader of the Ismaili Shi’ites. The first Agha Khan was Abu-l-Hasan Ali Shah. he was named Agha Khan in 1818 by the Shah of Persia, Fath Ali. After a failed rebellion in 1841, the Agha Khan fled Persia. traveling first to Kandahar in Afghanistan and then to Bombay in India he led many of his followers.

  • The current Agha Khan is the Harvard educated Karim who lives near Paris France and is known as a wise man and a generous benefactor.



  • A city in Pakistan that was an important weaving center since at least Mughal times. There are records of significant production of court carpets in the third quarter of the sixteenth century. Room size Agra carpets had a major resurgence in popularity in the 1990’s.

  • In 1565 Akbar had a small fort built by the Sultan of Delhi Iskandar Lodi knocked down and a larger fort and the town of Akbarabad was built. Agra was the sometime Mughal capitol after that point. It is important to keep in mind that the capitol was where ever the court was and the court followed the emperor so capitals moved. Tillotson Mughal India. Page 71 - 72.

  • Agra Red Fort

  • Agra Red Fort

  • North India Fort - Agra Red

  • History of Delhi : The Mughal Empire

Ahamed, Bashir


  • A town north of Heriz and Northeast of Tabriz that produces a high grade Persian Carpet that is very similar to a Heriz but higher quality and has a more curvilinear center medallion. Jacobsen suggests that he only began to see them in the market in 1959. However Ahjar is in a region that has been producing Persian Carpet for a long time.

  • See Guide To Heriz Rugs & Carpets



Ahmad, Ahmad

  • Ahmad, Ahmad `Abd al-Razzaq. "La chasse au falcon d'après des critiques de Musée du Caire" in AI. Vol. 9. 1970. 109-121.

  • Ahmad, Ahmad `Abd al-Razzaq. "Deux deux sportiest en Egypt au temps des Mamluks" in AI. Vol. 12. 1974. 95-130.

  • Ahmad, Ahmad `Abd al-Razzaq. "Documents sure la potteries d'époque mamlouke, Sharif al-Agawam" in AI. Vol. 7. l967. 21-32.

  • Ahmad, Ahmad `Abd al-Razzaq. "Le Sgraffito de l'Égypte mamlukes dans la collection dal-Sabah" in AI. Vol. 24. 1988. 1-24.

  • Ahmad, Ahmad `Abd al-Razzaq. "Notes on Islamic Graffito Ware of the Near East" in AI. Vol. 9. 1970. 179-186.

Allele, Ulrich.

  • Allele, Ulrich. "FORUM". Hali 97, 1998. page 67. "Ulrich Allele asks why, flying in the face of the evidence, none of the likely candidates in the Philadelphia ICOC exhibitions and catalogue were designated as Kurdish."


  • A political/military union of Oboqs (clans) . The leader is often called the Khan.

  • See Tribe


  • America-Israeli Public Affairs Committee, the "official" Israeli lobby in the United States.


Akasheh, Anahid

  • Woven Skies, Woven Lands: Kurdish Textiles as an Expression of Social Structure, Kurdish Times, vol. 1, no. 1. 1986

  • The Archaeology of the Kurdish Rugs. Kurdish Library, New York. 1992


Kabul, Farina.

  • Kabul, Farina. Samples of Turkish Handicraft. Istanbul: 1970.

Akimushkin, O. F.

  • Akimushkin, O. F. and Ivanov, A. A. " Una cola artisique meconnue Boxara au XVIle siecle." In Art et sociiti dans le monde iranien, ed. Chahriyar Adle. Paris, 1982. Pp. 127-39.

Gallerie Akka,

Ak Yup

  • Ak Yup - white tent band. A functional tent band is a flatwoven girth strap that holds the struts of the your together. Depending on the diameter of the yurt a real tent band must be between 40 and 55 feet. There are also two other types of tent band which are decorative. The more common type is pile design on a white flat weave band and the other is all pile.

  • Thompson Ak Yup


Akurgal, Ekrem.

  • Akurgal, Ekrem. ed. The Art and architecture of Turkey. New York, 1980.

Aideed, Hussein.

  • Hussein Aideed is the leader of the Habr Gedr Subclan and heads the Habr Gedr/Marehan alliance in Somalia.

  • Hussein Aideed is the son of Mohammed Farah Aideed who formed a Government after the fall of the Pro-US Said Barre Government but failed to gain international recognition.

  • Mohammed Farrah Aideed, was the warlord whose Habr Gedr forces killed 18 U.S. servicemen trying to apprehend him in 1993. The Aideed supporters dragged the dead U.S. soldiers through the streets of Mogadishu.

  • The Rahanwein Resistance Army fought with the forces of Hussein Aideed for control of the town of Baidoa, 1999. It is the most likely group for the US top back when they invade Somalia and even things up with Aideed's faction.

  • Oddly enough Hussein Aideed also served the United Staes with honor in the Marine Corp.

Al Hayat

  • Al Hayat is the leading international Arabic-language newspaper. It is based in Saudi Arabia.

  • 1997 Islamic Jihad sent letter bombs to the London UK, New York and Washington offices of the newspaper Al Hayat.

Al Rashid Trust

  • Al Rashid Trust is a charity operating in Afghanistan. It linked to al-Qaeda and features Saudi Arabians linked to the royal family.


  • Al-Andalus was the Arabic name for Spain. The word comes from country of the Vandals or "Vandalusie". Spain was an Arab land for 7 centuries and the blend of Arab and Spanish culture created some of the great architecture of the world.


  • Militant Islamic terrorist group renamed as the Hizb-ul Mujahideen.

  • Created by Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) with the help of the Jamaat-e-Islami of Pakistan.

Albertsson, Ingemar.

  • Communication Manager at Arla, Sweden's biggest dairy-company.

  • Owner of Hali, the Swedish kilim dealer and Book dealer.

  • Former secretary and board member of the Pazaryk Oriental Carpet Society in Stockholm (approx. 350 members) for the last six years.

  • HALI,

  • HALI,

  • Albertsson, I. & P. Wilborg. Vavd Magi / Woven Magic. 1992,

Albright, Madeleine

Aldred, C.

  • Aldred, C. Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Brooklyn Museum, 1973,

  • Aldred, C. Middle Kingdom Art in Ancient Egypt. London UK: A. Tiranti, 1956,

  • Aldred, C. Old Kingdom Art in Ancient Egypt. London UK: A. Tiranti, 1949,

  • Aldred, Cyril. Egyptian Art in the Days of the Pharaohs 3100-320 BC,


Alexander, Christopher.

Alexander, Yonah.

  • Professor Yonah Alexander is the director of the terrorism center at the Potomac Institute, a nonprofit think tank in suburban Washington that is so pro-Israel that it sounds like their lobby. .

  • The Washington Times (6/18/2003)
    Familiar recipe for terror
    Prof. Alexander gives an historical perspective on conflicts in the Middle East as a sign of the future.

  • Christian Science Monitor (6/18/2003)
    WMD terrorism: The next phase?
    Prof. Yonah Alexander writes that the (Al Qaeda) organization has a more advanced biological- and chemical-weapons program than the scientific community previously believed.


  • al-Bukhari, Sahih, The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih al-Bukhari (Arabic- English), (Medina: 1298 A. H.), 10 vols.

al-Duwaliyah li-Tarikh al-Qahirah

  • al-Duwaliyah li-Tarikh al-Qahirah. Raymond, André et al. (edited by). Cairo, 27 March-5 April 1969. Cairo: Wizarat al-Thaqafah, n.d.. 235-241.

Al-Faisal, Turki,

  • Prince Turki Al-Faisal, former head of Saudi Arabian Intelligence. Replaced August 2001. Alleged to have been very close to Bin Laden and al-Qaeda. Spent time hunting in Afghanistan.


  • al-Faruqi, Lois Ibsen. "Review of Renaissance of Islam: Art of the Mamluks, by Esin Atil" in The Muslim World. Vol. 73. 1983. 278-279.

The Alhambra Vase

Al Harakat


  • al-Husayn was the son of Ali Ibn Abi Talib and Fatima, he was assassinated in 680 AD at Kerbala and is venerated by the Shiites.


  • The descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through al-Husayn second son of Ali and Fatima.

  • Alids often are called saiyyid or sharîf.

Ali Ibn Abi Talib

  • Ali Ibn Abi Talib was the cousin of the Prophet Muhammad and was married to Fatima (the Prophet Mohammed's daughter). Ali Ibn Abi Talib was the fourth Caliph and became involved in a power struggle with Muawiya, governor of Syria. The fight caused Ali Ibn Abi Talib to be assassinated in Kufa in 661 AD and resulted in the Sunni and Shiite schism. Kufa in 661 AD. Muawiya founded the Umayyad dynasty of Damascus. Ali was assassinated in Kufa in 661 AD

  • ALI B. ABI TALIB (d.661)

Sultan Ali Mirza,

  • Sultan Ali Mirza of Gazan (reigned 1478 - 1504)

  • "Big Head" Fariburz and Kay Khusrau 1494 - Firdausi's Shahnama copied by Salik ibn Sa'id for Sultan Ali Mirza of Gazan (reigned 1478 - 1504) Turkmen Court Style, dated 1494

  • Sultan Ali Mirza sheltered Ismael Safavi against the soldiers of his grandfather. Ismael established the Safavid dynasty.


  • Al-Idrisi, Opus Geographicum, S. Maqbul (trans., ed.), (Aligarh: 1954).

al-`Imari, Amal Ahmad.

  • al-`Imari, Amal Ahmad. "Dirasah `alá Tuhfatayn Jadidatayn min al-Zujaj bi-Mathafay al-Funun al-Jamilah bi-Bustun wa-Bruklin bi-al-Walayat al-Muttahidah al-Amrikiyah" in Dirasat Athariyah Islamiyah. Vol. 3. 1988. 3-15.

  • al-`Imari, Amal Ahmad. "al-Shama`id al-Misriyah fi al-`Asr al-`Arabi mundhu Bidayat al-Fath al-`Arabi Nihayat al-`Asr al-Mamluki" Master's thesis, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, 1965.

  • al-`Imari, Amal Ahmad. "Studies in Some Islamic Objects Newly Discovered at Qus" in AI. Vol. 7. 1967. 121-138.

  • al-`Imari, Amal Ahmad. "Dirasah li-Zakharif `alá Lawh min al-Rukham `Uthira `alayhi fi Madrasat Sarghitmish" in Majallat Kulliyat al-Athar, Jami`at al-Qahirah. Vol. no. 1. 1975. 143-176.

Al Islamiyya


  • Al-Istakhri, Kitab al-Masalik wa al-Mamalik, (Cairo: 1961).

Al-Ittihad al Islamia

  • Al-Ittihad al Islamia, is a terrorist group based in Somalia. Ethiopia has been acting against Al-Ittihad al Islamia since the group has been smuggling drugs and exporting terrorism.


  • Al-Muqaddas, A?san al-Taqas•m f• ma’rifat al-Aqal•m, (Leiden: 1906).

Ali, Ahmed,

  • Ali, Ahmed, Al-Qur’an, (Princeton: 1984)

Aliyev, Heydar

  • President of the Republic of Azerbaijan 
    Ran on the New Azerbaijan Party (YAP) ticket and won with 2,556,059 votes (76.11% of the total ballots cast)
    Very good record on Human Rights. 

  • Aliyev Heydar Alirza oghlu


  • The Arabic word for the god of the tradition of the Prophet Mohammed. There is an effort to link Allah with God of Bible but this is not a easy correlation if one compares the traditions.

Allen, James.

Allan, J. W.

Allane, Lee.

  • Allane, Lee. Tribal Rugs a Buyers Guide. 1996,

  • Allane, Lee. Kilims, a Buyers Guide. 1995,

  • Allane, Lee. Chinese Rugs, A Buyers Guide. New York: 1993.

Allen, Terry.

  • Allen, Terry. "Byzantine Sources for the Yami' al-Tawarikh of Rashid Al-Din." Ars Orientalis 15 (1985): 121-36.

Allgrove, Joan.

  • Allgrove, Joan. Qashqai of Iran. Manchester UK: World of Islamic Festival 1976.

Almagro Cardeas, Antonio.

  • Almagro Cardeas, Antonio. Estudio sobre las inscipciones drabes de Granada. Granada, 1879. Spain and Maghreb

Al-Mojaddedi, Sibghatullah.

  • Sibghatullah Al-Mojaddedi is a former Afghan President.

  • Born 1929.

  • Head of the Afghan National Liberation Front Mojaddedib is seen as a moderate in both religion and in politics. He came from a family that did particularly well under the monarchy. Likely to line up with the Royalist factions.

Almohad Green Glazed Alhambra Vase

al-Musta'simi, Yaqut

  • A great calligrapher who in the 13th century combined skill with the innovation of cutting the pen tip at a right angle. He is used as a model by calligraphers even now.

Alokozai Naqibullah

  • Naqibullah Alokozai, AKA Mullah Naquib.

  • A Mujaheddin commander during the Soviet war.

  • Mullah Naquib handed over his men, arms, and control of Kandahar to Mullah Omar in exchange for a sizeable bribe in November of 1994. Now Mullah Omar has named Mullah Naquib as one of the two leaders he would turn Kandahar over to when he pulls out.

  • Ties to al-Qaeda.


Alpert, Steve.


The Al-Sabah Collection

al-Siri, Yasser.

  • Mr. Siri has been linked to an organization called the Islamic Observation Center in London. He has ties to Osama Bin Laden and the al-Qaeda network. He provided the documentaion for the men who murdered Ahmed Shah Mahsud

Altay, Fikret.

  • Altay, Fikret: Kaftanlar, 3 Topkapi Museum Caftans. Istanbul: 1979.

Alti Bolak

  • Two villages 6 miles south of Andkhoy in Faryab province Afghanistan.

  • Home of the Bokhara pattern a design like the Tekke but not joined by a gridline.

Altman, Benjamin.


al-Zawahairi, Ayman.

Amadiyah Turkey

Amaranth Dye

  • MESH: Polycyclic Hydrocarbons: Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Naphthalenes: Naphthalenesulfonates: Amaranth Dye
    MESH : Organic Chemicals: Sulfur Compounds: Sulfur Acids: Sulfonic Acids: Arylsulfonic Acids: Arylsulfonates: Naphthalenesulfonates: Amaranth Dye
    MESH : Inorganic Chemicals: Sulfur Compounds: Sulfur Acids: Sulfonic Acids: Arylsulfonic Acids: Arylsulfonates: Naphthalenesulfonates: Amaranth Dye
    MESH : Inorganic Chemicals: Acids: Acids, Noncarboxylic: Sulfur Acids: Sulfonic Acids: Arylsulfonic Acids: Arylsulfonates: Naphthalenesulfonates: Amaranth Dye
    MESH : Organic Chemicals: Azo Compounds: Amaranth Dye
    Red Dye No. 2
    FD & C Red No. 2
    Dye, Amaranth
    Qualifiants autorisés : AA AD AE AN CH CL CS CT DU EC HI IP ME PD PK PO RE SD ST TO TU

    A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Ambient s.r.l.

American Art Association

  • A leading New York Auction House that is now part of Sotheby's.

  • American Art Association: The Tiffany Studios Collection of Beautiful Old Chinese Rugs and Carpets ; New York: 1916.

American Council for Southern Asian Art

Ames, F.

Ames Fredrick L.

  • Mrs. Fredrick L. Ames gave one of the most important carpets in the world to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, in memory of her late husband.

  • Ames Carpet Technical Details


  • In a tribal confederation an Amir is picked as Military commander for the confederation and he is the leader in times of war. This authority is only in times of war but carries a connotation of trust, power, and authority.

Amini, Majid

Amiri, Barry

Amirian, Lemyel.

Ammann, Ludwig.

  • Ammann, Ludwig. "Review of Popular Culture in Medieval Cairo, by Boaz Shoshan" in BSOAS. Vol. 58: No. 3. 1995. 553-554.

  • Ammann, Ludwig. "Review of The Arabian Nights: A Companion, by Robert Irwin" in JRAS. Vol. (3rd ser.) 4: No. 3. 1994. 412-413.

Ammoun, Denise,

  • Ammoun, Denise, Crafts of Egypt, The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo, 1991

Amoghli Carpet

Ampe, P. & Ampe R.

  • Ampe, P. & Ampe R. Textile Art Textielkunst. 1994,

Ampe, Patrick.

  • Deceased. Prominient younger dealer from Europe.

`Amr, Abdel Jalil.

  • `Amr, Abdel Jalil. "Some Unusual Glazed Mamluke Saucer Lamps" in Levant. Vol. 18. 1986. 155-161.


Amsden, C.A.

  • Amsden, C.A. Navaho Weaving, Its Technique and history. Reprint of the 1934 ed.,

Amstey Marvin M.D.

Amtorg Trading Co.

  • Amtorg was the main state owned trading company of the Soviet Union particularly in the Lenin years. Amtorg was used to funnel funds to the Soviet Intelligence community particularly in the years before the Stalin purges. Goods such as Turkmen rugs were seized from the tribes in Central Asia as they were subjagated. These rugs then were sent to the west and were used to fund Soviet spies. The Hammer Gallery owned by the industrialist/spy Armand Hammer and was used to launder the Amtorg spy funds.

  • Amtorg Trading Co.: Oriental Rugs, Caucasus, Turkestan. ; New York: 1929.

  • Active part of Soviet spying in the US.

  • Ties to Soviet spy Armand Hammer.

An Lu-shan, Rebellion of


  • A non-political name for Turkey. It is used to describe both Turkey as a country and those parts of the Ottoman empire that are now Turkey.

Anavian, Rahim and George.

  • Anavian, Rahim and George: Royal Persian and Kashmir Brocades. Kyoto: 1975.

Andarbayev, Zelimkhan.

Andersen, Peter Siggaard.

  • English poet and writer.

  • The Chelsea Carpet, by Peter Siggaard Andersen (New article, February, 1997)

Anderson, June.

  • Anderson, June: Return to Tradition, The Revitalization of Turkish Village Carpets. San Francisco: 1998.


Andonian, Berdj.

  • Prominient New York City rug dealer who began his own production. Hard to remember where, maybe Romania. His rugs have a great reputation.

  • Mentioned in Emmett Eiland's book.

  • dogsmf

Andrews, Michael.

  • Prominent California dealer in Oriental Rugs and Pre-Colombian textiles.

  • Died suddenly leaving a wife and a young son.

Andrews, Mughul.

Andrews, Peter Alford.

Anet, Claude.

  • Anet, Claude. "Dr. F. R. Martin and Oriental Painting, 'Le traité des automates'" in Burlington Magazine. Vol. 23. 1913. 49-50.

Angels, Cult of.

Angleton, James Jesus.

Anglo Persian Carpet Co.

Anni, Turkey


  • Anonymous. Die Wiener Gobelins-Sammlung. Osterreisches Verlagsges. Ed. Holzel u. Co., N.d.,


  • Ansar was a Moslen seperatist revolutionary in Kashmir India. In 1999 Bin Laden gained control over Ansar (Moslem separatists in Kashmir, India adopt Wahhabi dress code.) Ansar shifted from moderate to extremist Moslem.

Anthes, R.

  • Anthes, R. Die Buste Der Konigin Nofretete. 1960, Verlag Gebr. Mann,

Anti Defamation League of the B'Nai Brith

Anti-terrorism Assistance

  • The Anti-terrorism Assistance (ATA) is a program that teaches civilian officials of foreign nations airport security, bomb detection, maritime security, VIP protection, hostage rescue, and crisis management. The program is run by the State Department and draws on many other agencies for their expertise.



  • In the trade 80 years old or older is considered antique.

Antique Rug Co.

Antiochus I Soter

Antiochus III the Great

Anton, F.

  • Anton, F. Brucken In Die Zukkunft Textile Kunst Vor Kolumbus. 1992,


  • Anvari or Anwari, full name Aad' Uddin Ali Anvari 1126-90, Persian poet, born in Khorasan, and educated at the madrassa in Tun now Firdaus, Iran. His panegyric of Seljuk Sultan Sanjar, Khorasan, won him royal favor. Anvari's Divan (collected poems) are considered some of the most beautiful poems in Persian literature.

Apex Rugs and Kilims,

Appadurai, Arjun.

  • The Social Life of Things : Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York. 1986

Appleby, Jeff.

Aqa Mirak

Arab Baluch

Arab News,

  • Saudi Arabia's quasi-governmental English-language newspaper that usually reflects the thinking of Saudi Arabia's monarchy.

Galerie Arabesque,

Arabgir, Sivas, Turkey

Arafah, `Isam.

  • `Arafah, `Isam. "al-Awda` al-Handasiyah lil-`Anasir al-Zukhrufiyah al-Islamiyah al-Nabatiyah wa-`Alaqatuha bi-Shakl al-Takwin bi-`Asr al-Mamalik al-Bahriyah bi-Misr" in al-Tarikh wa-al-Mustaqbal, Jami`at al-Minya. Vol. (n.s.) 3: No. 2. 1993. 239-304.


Ararat Rug Co.

Arastoo, Dr. Seyed M.

  • Arastoo, Dr. Seyed M.: The Essence of Persian Carpets-Woven in Oriental History. Kobe: 1994.

Arav, Rami.

  • Arav, Rami. "A Mamluk Drum from Bethsaida" in IEJ. Vol. 43. 1993. 241-245.

Arbab, Valentia.

Arberry, A. J.

  • Arberry, A. J. The Koran Illuminated: A Handlist of the Korans in the Chester Beatty Library. Dublin: Hodges, Figgis and Co., Ltd., 1967.

  • Arberry, A. J., Classical Persian Literature, (New York: 1958).

  • Arberry, A. J., Persian Poems: An Anthology of Verse Translations, (London: 1954).

  • Arberry, A. J., Sufism: An Account of the Mystics of Islam, (London: 1956).

  • Arberry, A. J., Minovi, M., and Blochet, E., The Chester Beatty Library: A Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts and Miniatures, 3 vols., (Dublin: 1959).


  • Ardebil is a city in Persian Azerbaijan in Northwest Iran. It is North by Northeast of Tabriz. 

  • In Safavid times it was the home base of the Safavi family and they endowed the Mosque and the Madrasah.

  • Ardebil was often used as a park in which to meet family members and trusted retainers of the Safavid dynasty. 

  • There is a production of Persian village carpet from there. 

Ardabil Carpet

Aref, Mohammad.

  • Mohammad Aref is the intelligence chief for the United Front (Northern Alliance).

Ariana Airways

Armenia and Armenians

Armenian Museum (Isfahan)

  • Set in the Cathedral of Isfahan this museum gives and important look at the Armenians of New Julfa. Covers art, history and culture.

  • Visiting hours: Everyday from 8:00 to 12:00 AM and from 3 PM to 7 PM

  • Address: Armenian Cathedral in New Julfa Isfahan

  • Telephone: (031) 43471 & 25555

Armstrong, Chris,

  • Armstrong, Chris, Distribution Assistant, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

Arnold, Thomas W.

  • Arnold, Thomas W. Bihzad and his Paintings in the Zafar-Namah Ms. London UK: Quaritch, 1930.

  • Arnold, Thomas W. C.I.E., F.B.A., Litt.D. Painting in Islam. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1965 reprint of a 1928 Oxford University Press Book.

  • Arnold, Thomas W. The Library of Alfred Chester Beatty, A Catalogue of the Indian Miniatures, Vols. 1-3. (London, Oxford University Press, 1936.)

  • Arnold, Thomas W., The Influence of Poetry and Theology on Painting,” in A Survey of Persian Art, Pope, Arthur Upham (ed.), (London: 1939), vol. 3, pp. 1904-10.

Arseven, Celal E.

  • Arseven, Celal E.: L'Art Turc. Istanbul: 1939.

Arshi, Ziba and Khosro Zabihi

  • 1991 Kurdistan. Kegan Paul International, London.

Arthur, Allan.

Art Institute of Chicago.

  • Art Institute of Chicago

  • The Art Institute of Chicago, 111 South Michigan Avenue Chicago, IL 60603-6110

  • Art Institute of Chicago. Near Eastern Art In Chicago Collections. n.d., c. 1973,

  • Art Institute of Chicago: Descriptive Catalogue of an Exhibition of Oriental Rugs-Ballard Collection. Chicago: 1922.


  • Published online in the United Kingdom for busy people and regularly updated.

  • David Coombs' ArtNewsLetter

  • www.artnewsletter.com

Art silk

Artin, Yacoub.

  • Artin, Yacoub. "Une lampe armoriée de l'Émir Scheikhou" in BIE. Vol. (6th ser.) 6. 1905. 7-15.


Arwandeli, Aziz.


  • Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia

  • An international Armenian terrorist group. Two factions, one a hard-core terrorist group that believed in indiscriminate slaughter of innocents as a political tool. The hard-core wing was headed by Hagop Hagopian. A moderate wing was headed by Monte Melkonian until his death in Nagorno Karabakh in 1993. The moderates fought a far more civilized war seeing clear distinctions between "legitimate' targets and innocent bystanders. The moderates were very successful transitioning into freedom fighters and helping to liberate Nagorno Karabakh.

Asbat al-Ansar

  • Asbat al-Ansar is a small Lebanese terrorist group linked to Al-Qaida.

Aschenbrenner, Erich.

  • Expert on the Persian carpet.

  • Aschenbrenner, Erich. Oriental Rugs Volume 2 Persian. Munich: Antique Collector 1981.

  • Aschenbrenner, Eric, Oriental Rugs, Volume 2, Persia, Battenberg Verlag, Munich, 1981

  • Aschenbrenner, Eric, Oriental Rugs: Volume 2: Persian. England, Antique Collectors' Club. 1993

  • 090746212X

Asher, Robert.

  • Robert B. Asher, CEO, Asher’s Chocolates

  • Republican National Committeeman from Pennsylvania.

  • Former Montgomery Country Republican Chairman.

Ashfaque, S. M.,

  • Ashfaque, S. M., "The Grand Mosque of Banbhore," in Pakistan Archaeology, vol. 6 (1969), pp. 182-219.

Asher, Catherine B.

Ashrafi, M. M.

  • Ashrafi, M. M. Persian-Tajik Poetry in XIV-XVII Centuries Miniatures. Dushanbe, 1974.

Ashrafi-Aini, M. M.

  • Ashrafi-Aini, M. M. "The School of Bukhara to C. 1550." In Arts of the Book in Central Asia, ed. Basil Gray. Boulder, CO, 1979. Pp. 249-73.

Ashtor, Eliyahu.

  • Ashtor, Eliyahu. "Review of Islam and the Trade of Asia: A Colloquium, edited by D. S. Richards" in Asian and African Studies: Journal of the Israel Oriental Society. Vol. 9: No. 2. 1973. 244-247.

Asian Arts,

  • An on-line journal for the study and exhibition of the arts of Asia.

  • www.AsianArt.com

Asia Society

  • "The Asia Society was founded in 1956 by John D. Rockefeller 3rd to foster understanding between Asians and Americans. Asia House, on East 64th Street in New York City, was the first home of the nonprofit, nonpolitical educational institution. In 1981, the Asia Society moved to its current headquarters at 725 Park Avenue, a red granite building designed by Edward Larrabee Barnes to house the Society's galleries, auditorium, bookstore, gift shop and offices." http://www.asiasociety.org/

Aslanapa, Oktay.

  • Aslanapa, Oktay. One Thousand Years of Turkish Carpets. Eren, Istanbul, 1988

  • Aslanapa, Oktay. "Iznik'te Sultan Orhan Imaret Camii Kazisi (Die Ausgrabungen der Sultan Orhan Imaret Moschee von Iznik)." Sanat Tarihi Yilligi I (1964-5): 16-31 (Turkish); 32-8 (German). -. Turkish Art and architecture. New York, 1971.

  • Aslanapa, Oktay. "The Art of Bookbinding." Ibid. PP. 59-91.

  • Aslanapa, Oktay. Turkish Arts-Seljuk and Ottoman Carpets Tile and Miniature Painting. Istanbul: 1961.

  • Aslanapa, Oktay. "Pottery and Kilns from the Iznik Excavations," in Forschungen zur Kunst Asiens. In Memoriam Kurt Erdmann, (Istanbul: 1969), 140-6.


  • A trapping used in a Turkmen wedding procession. Asmalyks may be pile or embroidered and are usually 5 sided.

  • Yomut asmalyks are most common and then those of the Tekke

  • Yomud Asmalyk

  • Yomud Camel Decoration (Asmalyk)

  • Atabeg

    • Atabeg is Turkish for the governor of a town or province entrusted with the upbringing of a young prince.

    Atasoy, Nurhan.

    • Atasoy, Nurhan. and Filiz Cagman. Turkish Miniature Painting, trans. Esin Atil. Istanbul, 1974.

    • Atasoy, Nurhan. "Un manuscrit mamluk illustré du Sahnama" in Revue des études islamiques. Vol. 37. 1969. 151-58. Translated by R. H. Unal from the Turkish

    • Atasoy, N., and Raby, J., Iznik: The Pottery of Ottoman Turkey, London, UK.:1989.

    Atef, Mohammed

    Atil, E.

    Atiyeh, Philip Aziz.

    Atiyeh, Tom and Leslie.

    Atlas-e rih'hi-ye Irdn

    • Atlas-e rih'hi-ye Irdn (Road atlas of Iran), Tehran, 1360/1981

    Atlihan, Serife.

    • "The Weavings of the Yuruks of the Fethiye Region in Southwestern Anatolia". Hamburg/Berlin ICOC7 1993.

    Attenborough, David.

    • Attenborough, David. The Tribal Eye. New York: 1976.

    Aubin, Jean 

    • One of the great French Historians of the 20th century

    • Aubin, Jean Deux Sayyids de Bam Au XVe Siecle (Contribution a l'Histoire de l'Iran Timouride) Franz Steiner Verlag G.M.B.H. Weisbaden, 1956.

    • Aubin, Jean. Damiao de Gois et l'archevêque d'Upsal. Paris, s. éd, 1982.

    • Aubin, Jean. "La politique orientale de Selim Ier" in Itinéraires d'Orient: Hommages à Claude Cahen. Curiel, Raoul (edited by). Res Orientales; 6. Bures-sur-Yvette: Groupe pour l'Étude de la Civilisation du Moyen-Orient, 1994. 197-216. Review see Bianquis; Mouton. 

    • Aubin, Jean. "Review of Mamlouks, Ottomans et Portugais en mer Rouge: L'affaire de Djedda en 1517, by J.-L. Bacqué-Grammont and A. Kroell" in BCAI. Vol. 6. 1989. 149-151. 

    • Aubin, Jean. Emirs Mongols et Vizirs Persans dans les Remous de L'Acculturation. (Studia Iranica, Cahier 15) 96 pages, index, tables. Leuven: Peters Press, 1995. BEF720 (Paper) isbn 22- 910640-01-9 


    Auld, Sylvia J.

    • Auld, Sylvia J. "'Veneto-Saracenic' Metalwork: Objects and History" Ph.D. diss., University of Edinburgh, 1989.


    • Aurangzeb beame Alamgir (World Conqueror) Reigned 1659 - 1707

    • Aurangzeb succeeded his father Shah Jahan and became an Shah of Shah or Padishah in India. he died in 1707.

    Aurora Art Publishers

    • Aurora Art Publishers is named after the Battleship Aurora whose crew mutinied and shelled the winter palace in the Russian Revolution.

    • Azerbaijan Carpets and Rugs. Leningrad: Aurora Art Publishers. 1978.

    • Rugs and Carpets of Soviet Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Leningrad: Aurora Art Publishers. 1982.

    Austrian Collections.

    • Austrian Collections. / Antike Orientteppiche Aus Osterreichischem Besitz. 1986,

    Auserehl & Company

    Auth, Susan H.

    • Auth, Susan H. "Review of Glass from Quseir al-Qadim and the Indian Ocean Trade, by Carol Meyer" in JARCE. Vol. 31. 1994. 232-233. 126-129.


    Ayyildiz, Ugar.

    • Ayyildiz, Ugar. Zeitgenossische Turkische Teppiche. (Turkey?): 1981.


    Azadi, Siawosch.

    Azam, Abdullah.

    Azeri - Northern

    Azeri - Southern


    • Can be a brand of rug or can refer to any rug made by an Azeri.


    Azerbaijan National Carpet Museum


    Azizollahoff, J.R.

    J. Barry O'Connell Jr.

    Copyright Barry O'Connell 2004 - 2006.
    Last revised: March 24, 2009.

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