Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

Barry O'Connell's Oriental and Persian Rug Notes

Hagop Manoyan Antique RugsNazmiyal Antique Rugs

Rug Notes Index - C

Cadenhead, Steve.

  • Former President of the New York based Hajji Baba Club. Former Executive with the Union Bank of Switzerland.

  • Rug Societies

Cadry, J.

  • Cadry, J.: Woven History Stories in Carpets. Canberra: 1990.

Cahen, Claude.

Caiger-Smith, Alan.

  • Caiger-Smith, Alan. Lustre Pottery: Technique, Tradition and Innovation in Islam and the Western World. London, 1985.

Calatchi, R. de.


    THE Robert de Calatchi collection to be sold at Sotheby’s in London on October 4, 2000 represents an outstanding group of oriental rugs and carpets, the legacy of one man’s connoisseurship and passion. Robert de Calatchi, who lived and worked in Paris, turned his personal interest into a thriving business which enjoyed international renown.

    The pieces in Robert de Calatchi’s collection are all of the highest quality. His academic approach is evident from the strong focus of the collection on the East, including Oriental, Caucasian and Persian items, although at the same time the collection is eclectic in its variety and encyclopedic in its range. Of particular importance are the exemplary group of 26 Senneh rugs from Kurdistan, West Persia, and the varied selection of Caucasian rugs. Examples include an attractive Senneh rug, circa 1890 (est: £6,000/8,000), a very striking Kazak Karatchop rug, West Caucasus, second half of the 19th century (est: £8,000/12,000) and from North East Caucasus, a late 17th century Kuba long rug (est: £7,000/10,000).

    One of the highlights of the collection is a Heriz silk carpet from North West Persia and dating from circa 1880. It is estimated to fetch £25,000/35,000, as is a late 16th century Esfahan carpet fragment from Central Persia. Among the Chinese carpets is a Ninghsia rug. Dating from the late 17th century it is estimated to fetch £7,000/10,000.

    For press enquiries please contact:
    Amanda Stucklin
    Tel: 020 7 293 5169
    Fax: 020 7 293 5947

  • "By those who were fortunate enough to have known Robert de Calatchi, he will be remembered as a man who was deeply passionate about carpets. He was born in 1908 in Izmir, Turkey into a family of Italian diplomats. His interest in carpets was manifested from the age of 16 and he was clearly captivated by the carpets he saw in Turkey. He settled in Paris in 1927, and in 1934 he opened a gallery on boulevard Hausmann. He went on to organize many exhibitions, including one held in 1955 in the Maison pavilion of the Louvre and, in subsequent years, shows at the Breva Palace in Milan, the Delft Museum in Holland and the Palazzo Strozzi in Florence.

    His intriguing collection includes no less than 26 late-19th-century Senneh rugs from Kurdistan in northwest Persia, some of which are woven using the region's famous multi-coloured silk warps. There is also a varied selection of good Caucasian rugs from all of the area's weaving districts, ranging in date from the 18th century to the early 20th century. A fine 19th-century silk carpet with a highly decorative, bold design heads the group of Persian town rugs woven in both wool and silk. A beautiful Esfahan carpet fragment woven on silk warps can be dated to the 16th century and provides a superb example of Classical Safavid weaving. Other weaving areas are also represented, and overall the collection represents an eclectic array of fine rugs.

    [Jonathan Wadsworth is head of the Rugs & Carpets department, Sotheby's London.]" Sneak Preview - The Robert de Calatchi Collection of Fine Oriental Rugs & Carpets

  • Calatchi, R. de. Oriental Rugs. 1970.

  • Calatchi, Robert de. Oriental Carpets. Secaucus 1979.


  • From the Arabic "Khalifah", meaning head of the Islamic community in the line of the Prophet's successors. This title is used to designate the successor of the Prophet in that person's capacity as temporal and spiritual leader of the Islamic community.

  • The Caliph was a successor to Muhammad in that they were both spiritual and temporal leaders.


  • The Muslim state.

Calloway, Carol.


  • The Arvana Dromedary Camel

  • Bactrian Camel

    • Double Humped

    • The Bactrian camel is the camel native to Central Asia, China, and Afghanistan. It is distinctive because of it's double hump. This is separate and distinct from the single humped camels which are Arab camels and are usually referred to as a group as Dromedary.

    • Loads can range from 200 pounds up to 650 pounds. Of course length of trip determines weight. I have seen huge ore bags that would allow camels to carry easily 650 pounds but obviously not for days on end across desert.

    • Bactrian camels molt in the spring 11 to 17 pounds of wool. Bactrian Camels

    • Breeds of Livestock - Bactrian Camels

Turkmen(Torkaman) Camels

  • Single-humped camel

  • Strong for carrying loads and riding.

  • Important as a milking camel.

  • Torkaman Sahra, Gorgan and Gonbad as well as north of Khorasan.

  • Can carry loads of 300 pounds up to 25 miles a day.

  • The "wool" is light brown to dark brown in color.

  • The wool is curly unlike all the other camel "wool" from other breeds.

  • The "wool" is picked in spring by the men.

  • Source: An Introduction to Various Breeds of Camel in Iran

Baloochi Camels

Fighting Camels

Camman, Schuyler Van Rensselaer.

Campana, M.

  • Campana, M. Oriental Carpets. 1969,

Campbell, Alan

Canade, Rosario,

  • Canade, Rosario, Advertisement Executive, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

Canby, Sheila


  • Candelabrum (pl. candelabra): a decorative branched candlestick.

Robert L Canfield


  • A traveling group of pack animals often camels.


Carboni, Stefano.

  • Carboni, Stefano. "Glass Bracelets from the Mamluk Period in the Metropolitan Museum of Art" in Journal of Glass Studies. Vol. 36. 1994.

Carmel, Lorna.

  • Carmel, Lorna, "Creating Ruggies for the 21st Century", Oriental Rug Review XII/14-16

  • Curator of Central Asian textiles at the Textile Museum In Washington DC

Carpet and Kilim Museum (Istanbul)

Carpet Museum

  • "5 Gorogly Street, Ashgabat (next to the Grand Turkmen Hotel) Turkmenistan
    Tel: (993-12) 39-88-87 or 39-88-79
    Open: Monday - Saturday; 10:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m.
    Closed: Sundays
    Entry fee: 25,000 Manats
    Director: Tuvakbibi Kurbanovna Durdyeva
    This museum has a large impressive collection of antiques and world-renowned Turkmen carpets, as well as the largest hand-knotted Turkmen carpet in the world. It also has a carpet shop where visitors can buy new handmade carpets. See exports (http://www.usemb-ashgabat.usia.co.at/export.htm) for
    information about taking rugs out of Turkmenistan."

Carpet Museums

Carpet Museum of Iran.

  • Carpet Museum of Iran

    • Large modern two story octagonal building created after the Revolution (1979) to house and exhibit fine
      Iranian carpets and rugs.
      Hours: Everyday from 9 to 5 excepted Mondays
      Address: Karagar-e Shomali Ave., (next to Laleh Park), Tehran,
      Tele: 654676

  • Carpet Museum of Iran

  • Carpet Museum of Iran: Collection of Iranian Carpet Postcards ; Tehran: (1990?).

Carpets Museum of the Holy Shrine of Emam Reza

  • Holy Shrine of Emam Reza, Mashad, Iran
    Tele: +98 511 24570

Carpets of the Inner Circle,

Carriere, Craig.

  • Dr. Craig Carriere, Research Leader at the USDA Biomaterials Processing Research Center. A mathematician and research scientist.

  • Researcher on the 17th century Allen Juval project.

  • Jim Allen and Dr. Craig Carriere Answer - 03/11/2000

    • Jim Allen and Dr. Craig Carriere Answer - 03/11/2000

Carswell, John,

Caruso, Tom.

  • "The Legacy of Caucasian Embroideries" Santa Monica: ACOR 3, 1996.

  • "What's a Weaving Masterpiece?" Denver: ACOR4 Focus Session, 1998.

Cassidy, Carol

Castle Cleaning

  • Colorado carpet cleaning company.

  • Castle Cleaning, Colorado

Cater, Milton.


Cavanna, Roger.

Cavallo, Adolph S.

  • Cavallo, A. S. Tapestries of Europe and Colonial Peru in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Museum of Fine Arts. 1967, Vol. I:

  • Cavallo, Adolph S. 1962 A Carpet from Cairo, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, vol. 1, pp. 69-75.

Cedar, Henry.


  • Chinese porcelain was imported to Moghol India in the Reign of Akbar. A heavy porcelain called Celadon and sometimes Ghori was popular. Most was Ming 1368 to 1644 with some Sung 960 - 1280 as well. Akbar: the Great Mogul. Page 298 - 299.

Celik, Zeynep.

  • Celik, Zeynep. The Remaking of Istanbul.- Portrait of an Ottoman City in the Nineteenth Century. Seattle and London, 1986.


Ceretto, E.

  • Ceretto, E. & B. Kolahi. Labyrinths On The Rug. 1991,

Cetinkaya, Mehmet


Chaghatay Turki

  • After the death of Cinggis Qan and the Kuriltai of 1228 Chagatai received Turkestan as his yurt. The language of his Ulus evolved into a language we know as Chagatai or Turki.

  • The Chaghatay language is alive and well across Central Asia.4 It has never died, and is often referred to as "Turkistani", or simply by its earlier name, Turki. Paksoy, Alpamysh. Chapter 3

  • Chaghatay is primarily based on Uygur, which later became Karakhanid on the way to Chaghatay. Paksoy, Alpamysh. Chapter 3 note 4.

  • Chagatai also Jagatai

Chahal Shotur

  • Chahal Shotur is a village in the Chahar Mahal near Shahr Kurd. The village produces the best of the Bahktiarri production.

Chahar Aymaq

  • Chahar Aymaq refers to the people in Northwest Afghanistan who speak Chahar Aymaq or one of it's dialects. Dialects include Timuri, Taimani, Zohri, Jamshidi, Firozkohi, Maliki, Mizmast, Chingizi, Qedai Nao Hazara, Zainal, Khazara.

  • Chahar Aymaq is a language in the Persian language family with heavy borrowing from Mongol and Turkic. Some suggest that it is a subset or dialect of Dari but I do not think so. (Then again I am no linguist) About 1600 Shah Abbas of Persia took several aymaqs of his border area and made them into one tribal confederation. Three of the aymaqs were Timurid Turko-Mongolic herders groups, the Timuri, The Taimani, and the Firozkohi. The fourth was a Persian tribe called the Jamshidi from the Kerman area of Persia. Because there were four main tribes in the confederation they were called the Chahar (four in Persian) Aymaq (tribes). The tribal confederation appeared to break up in the 19th century but the language of that resulted from that 16th century political move exists to this day.

  • The Ethnologue data base list the following dialects for Chahar Aymaq TAIMURI (TEIMURI, TIMURI, TAIMOURI), TAIMANI, ZOHRI (ZURI), JAMSHIDI (JAMSHEDI, DJAMCHIDI, YEMCHIDI, DZHEMSHID), FIROZKOHI, MALIKI, MIZMAST, CHINGHIZI, QEDAI NAO HAZARA AIMAQ, ZAINAL, KHAZARA. I feel they are in error on Qedai Nao Hazara Aimaq and possibly Khazara but on the whole it is a very good source. On the basis of my research I believe that Qedai Nao Hazara Aimaq is more properly considered a dialect of Hazaragi.


Chalabi, Ahmad.

Chalumeau, Pierre.

  • Chalumeau, Pierre. Les Nattes D'Alfa du Boutaleb, Etude de Sociologie Nord-Africaine ; Tunis: 1954.

Champault, Dominique.

  • Champault, Dominique. "Review of Tissus islamiques de la Collection Pfister, by Georgette Cornu, Odile Valansot, and Hélène Meyer" in SI. Vol. 82: No. 2. 1995. 146-147.

Chandra, Moti,

  • Chandra, Moti, The Technique of Mughal Painting, (Lucknow: 1949).

Chapman, Maria.

Chardin, John.

  • John Chardin traveling in Persia from 1673 to 1677 noted Kerman province especially Seistan as the home of the finest Persian Carpets.


Charleston, Robert J.

  • Charleston, Robert J. "A 13th Century Syrian Glass Beaker Excavated in Lübeck" in Lübeck 1226: Reichsfreiheit und frühe Stadt. Lübeck: Hansisches Verlagskontor H. Scheffler, 1976. 321-337. With an introduction in German by Werner Neugebauer.


  • A village in Kerman that produces rugs.

Chattopadhaya, Kamaladevi.

  • Chattopadhaya, Kamaladevi. Carpets and Floor coverings of India. Bombay: Taraporevala,1976 (rev. ed. of 1969),



Chelsea Carpet

Chenciner, Robert.

  • "North of Derbent's Walls" Denver: ACOR4 Focus Session, 1998.

  • Chenciner, Robert: Kaitag: Textile Art from Daghestan ; London: 1993.

  • 1992 Persian Exports to Russia from the 16th to the 19th Century, Iran, v.30, pp.123-130.

Chen, Lin.

Gallery Chevalier.

  • Paris Gallery Chevalier Old tapestries, Oriental carpet, European Carpets Purchase-Sale-expertise

  • 17, Voltaire Quay 75007 Paris France Tel.: 01 42 60 72 68 Fax: 01 42 86 99 06 E-mail: info@galerie-chevalier.com

  • Chevalier Conservation

    • Paris - Defense
      64, boulevard of the Mission-Merchant
      92400 COURBEVOIE
      Tel.: 01 47 88 41 41
      Fax: 01 47 88 64 52
      Monday at Friday 8h30-18h
      Saturday 8h30-12h

Chevalier, Dominique.

  • Chevalier, Dominique and Nicole de Pazzis-Chevalier: Des Tapis Inoubliables: Exposition de Tapis d'Orient Anciens ; Paris


Chinese Porcelain, Co.

  • Chinese Porcelain, Co: Pattern and Symbol: .Chinese Rugs and Carpets ; NY: 1986.

Chinese Rugs and textiles.

Chirkov, D.

  • Chirkov, D. Daghestan Decorative Art Moscow 1971. Russian/French/English text.

Chirvani, A. S.

  • Chirvani, A. S. Melikian. Islamic Metalwork From the Iranian World 8 - 18TH Centuries. Victoria and Albert Museum Catalogue. HMSO, 1982.


Chub Bash

Chukru, Tahsin,

  • Chukru, Tahsin, "Les Faïences Turques," in Oriental Ceramic Society Transactions, 11 (1933-4), 48-61.

Chinalai Tribal Antiques,

Ching, C. P.

Christchurch Carpets,

Christian, William.


  • Christie's London sale 5547, 14 Feb 1996. The Bernheimer Family Collection of Carpets.

  • Christie's London sale 7360, 2 Oct 1996. The Bernheimer Family Collection of Textiles.

  • Tresors 1994, by Herbert J. Exner, The Singapore Fair and an interview with William Robinson of Christie's, Oriental Rug Review, Vol. 15/5

Christopher, Warren.

Chub Bash



Cig, Kemal,

  • Cig, Kemal, Sabahattin Batur, and Cengiz Koseoglu. The Topkapi Saray Museum, Architeaure: The Harem and Other Buildings, trans. and ed. J. M. Rogers. Boston, 1988.

Cinggis Qan

The Circassians (Cherkei)

Cittone, Elio.

  • Cittone, Elio: Tesori Ottomani del XVI e XVII Secolo (Ottoman Textiles of the 16th and 17th Centuries) ; Milano: (1980)

Clafin, H. B.

  • Clafin, H. B.: Rugs and Carpets from the Orient ; NY: 1913.

Clark, Hartley

  • Member Hajji Baba Club, New York.

  • Clark, Hartley Bokhara, Turkoman and Afghan Rugs London John Lane Bodley Head Ltd. 1922.

Classical Carpets

Clawson, Patrick.

Cleaves, Francis Woodman

  • Cleaves was Professor Emeritus of Far Eastern Languages at Harvard University until his death in 1995. 

  • Cleaves, Francis Woodman. The Secret History of the Mongols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982.

Clinton. William Jefferson.


Cloudman, R. M.

  • Cloudman, R. M. A Rich Inheritance; Oriental Rugs of the 19th and 20th Centuries. 1974,

Close, Paul.

Coad, Sam


  • Cochineal is an insect dye. It is from the scale insect that grows on cactus.

  • First imported in the first quarter of the sixteenth century it came into common usage as a rug dye when it was produced commercially in the canary islands in the 1820's.

Codrington, O.,

  • Codrington, O., “Catalogue of the Arabic, Persian, Hindustani and Turkish Manuscripts in the Library of the Royal Asiatic Society,” in JRAS (1982), pp. 501-69.

Coen, L.

  • Coen, Luciano. & Duncan. Louise. The Oriental Rug. 1978,

Cohen, James.

  • Very good young London dealer. I bought some rugs from him and was very pleased. Has an excellent eye for color.

Cohen, Maria.

  • Cohen, Maria. Shirwan. 1995,

  • Cohen, Maria: Tappeti Kazak. Milan: 1984.

Cohen, Stephen.

  • Stephen Cohen is a South Asian specialist and analyst at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C.

Cohen Steven J.

  • Cohen is one of the top British experts on classical carpets particularly Mughal Carpets. While I disagree with his conclusions Cohen's work on the Red Ground Grotesque Fragments represents the "conventional wisdom" on the subject. I will have to look for my notes on his article. I think the problem was structural concerning the warps.

  • Tilden, Jill. Ed. Silk & Stone The Art Of Asia. Chapter on Red Ground Grotesque Fragments

  • Cohen, S., Black, D., Loveless, C. The Unappreciated Dhurrie, David Black Oriental Rugs, London, 1982

  • Cohen, Steven, Contributing Editors, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

Cole, Katherine.

Coleman, Teresa.

Collier, G. A.

  • Collier, G. A., R. Mendoza de Rick, S. Berger. Aymara Weavings From Highland Bolivia. 19th & early 20th Centuries. 1981.

Collins, Ian.

  • Ian Collins was the Export Manager for the old OCM when it was independent. Collins was mentored by Richard and Brian Huffner.

Combe, Étienne.

  • Combe, Étienne. "European Swords with Arabic Inscriptions from the Armory of Alexandria" in Bulletin de la Société royale d'archéologie d'Alexandrie. Vol.
    (n.s.) 9: No. 2. 1937. 225-246.

Concaro, Edoardo.

  • "Sovereign Carpets: Unknown Masterpieces from European Collections
    by Edoardo Concaro (Editor), Alberto Levi (Editor)
    About this title: The book illustrates the extraordinary and very ancient art of rugs with a relevant selection of Oriental rugs--from the oldest to the ones produced in the late 19th century--belonging to European private collections, besides a set of rugs coming from the Russian ethnographic museum of St. Petersburg. The fruit of long research within the rich private artistic patrimony, the catalogue assembles two hundred Oriental rugs from the 15th to the 19th century, coming from Persia, Anatolia, the Caucasus, central Asia, Tibet, Turkestan and China. The pieces featured in the volume cover vast chronological and geographical sections of the fascinating world of carpets; the aim of the book is both eclectic and simple: to present very beautiful rugs belonging to private collectors and to give--through brief introductory chapters--an overview of the main carpet-weaving areas of the world. A series of maps and a glossary of technical terms are designed to help the non professional reader." www.alibris.com

Conlon-Seigal Galleries,


Conway, S.

  • Conway, S. Thai Textiles. 1992,

Cook, Tom.

  • Textile Museum Advisory Board Member and member of the TM Rug Convention Steering Committee.

  • "Fars Province Weavings", Chicago: ACOR II, 1996

Coomaraswamy, Ananda K.

Cooney, J. D.

  • Cooney, J. D. Amarna reliefs From Hermopolis in American Collections. 1965, Brooklyn Museum,

Cooper, Merian C.

  • Cooper, Merian C.: Grass ; NY: 1925. 5 x 7.5, Early study of the nomadic Bahktiari seeking pasturage for their sheep in So. Iran. Photos by Beaumont Schoedsack., 64 b/w.

Cootner, Cathryn M.

  • Cathy Cootner is retired from the position of curator-in-charge of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco textile department.

  • "Turkish Kilims" Santa Monica: ACOR 3, 1996.

  • Cootner, C. M. Guide to the Exhibition Anatolian Kilims. San Francisco: 1990.

  • Cootner, Cathryn: Anatolian Kilims ; San Francisco: 1990. 8 x 12, Stunning collection of early kilims presented by Mrs. H. McCoy Jones to the deYoung Museum., 112 CP, 45 b/w.

  • Cootner, Cathryn M. Tent and Town, Rugs and Embroideries from Central Asia-The H. McCoy Jones Collection. San Francis

  • Cootner, Cathryn. Oriental Rugs, An Introduction: Prayer Rugs. Technical Data and Descriptions Palo Alto. (1974).

  • 1981 Flat-Woven Textiles: The Arthur D. Jenkins Collection, Vol. I, The Textile Museum, Washington.

Copeland, Miles,

  • CIA middle East old hand . Active in Syria, Egypt and Saudi Arabia.

  • Moved from OSS to CIA and then to Booz-Allen & Hamilton where he continued to work with the CIA. Copeland moved from spy to a unofficial representative and agent of influence with Middle Eastern leaders. Loftus & Aarons. Secret War page 230 - 235.

  • Worked for Kim Roosevelt and with Don Wilber.

Cordesman, Anthony.

  • Anthony H. Cordesman, formerly with the US Department of State now a senior (military) analyst at the Center for Strategic & International Studies in Washington.

  • Anthony Cordesman, Iranian Arms Transfers: The Facts, Center for Strategic and International Studies

Cormack, Robin.

  • Cormack, Robin. The Byzantine Eye Studies in art and patronage. 1989.


Coulter, Jacqueline.

  • Jacqueline runs the carpet department at Sotheby's London see www.Sothebys.com

Covington & Burling

  • A top Washington DC law firm.

  • More important partners over the years include Ed Zimmerman and Dean Gooderham Acheson. I mean no disrepect to Ed by mentioning him in the same sentance with Acheson. The best we can say about Dean Acheson was that he was a poor judge of character. Less charitable people link Acheson to the Communists that he shelteered at State Department. Zimmerman on the other hand is a sterling character and a great American.

Cowen, Jill Sanchia.

  • Cowen, Jill Sanchia. Kalila wa Dimna: an Animal Allegory of the Mongol Court. New York and Oxford, 1989.

Crandall, Frank,

  • Collector of Persian village carpets and was the long time secretary of the Washington Textile Group now the International Hajji Baba. Frank is a great guy. He is a chemist and works with dyes extensively so I value his insight.

  • Frank Crandall

  • Frank Crandall

Crane, Howard.

  • Crane, Howard. Risdle-i Mi'mdriyye.- An Early Seventeenth-Century Ottoman Treatise on Architecture. Facsimile with translation and notes. Supplements to Muqamas. Leiden, 1987.

Craycraft, Michael.

Creswell, K. A. C.

  • Creswell, K. A. C. A Bibliography of the Architecture, Arts and Crafts of Islam, to 1st January 1960. Cairo: AUC, 1961.

  • Creswell, K. A. C. A Bibliography of the Architecture, Arts and Crafts of Islam: Supplement, January 1960--January 1972. Cairo: AUC, 1973.

  • Creswell, K. A. C. "Dr. F. R. Martin's M.S. 'Treatise on Automata'" in The Year Book of Oriental Art and Culture, 1924-1925. Waley, Arthur (edited by). Vol. 1. London: Ernest Benn, Limited, 1925. 33-40.

  • Creswell, K. A. C. A Bibliography of Arms and Armour in Islam. London: Luzac, 1956.

  • Creswell, K. A. C., Early Muslim Architecture, (Oxford: 1932).

  • Creswell, K.A.C.: A Short Account of Early Muslim Architecture ; Beirut: 1968. 5.5 x 8, 77 b/w 64 figures.

Crill, Rosemary.

  • Crill, Rosemary, Contributing Editors, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

  • Crill, Rosemary. "The Ikats of India". Hali 99, 1998. page 78. "The dyeing and pattern making skills of Indian textile craftsmen have ensured the renown of Ikat weaves from the Subcontinent. The Victoria & Albert Museum's Indian Department boasts an extensive collection of these textiles, which are surveyed here by the author of an important new book on the subject."


  • Crimp is the wave in a wool fiber. A very wavy fiber has more Crimp, or is called crimpier. A fiber that is straight has no crimp.

Croess, Gisele.

Cronin, Vincent

  • Cronin, Vincent: The Last Migration ; NY: 1957. 5.5 x 8 Hardback, Details of the Shah's armed attack upon nomadic So. Persian tribal groups., 6 b/w

Crone, Patricia

  • Patricia Crone teaches Islamic history at the University of Cambridge where she is a Fellow of Gonville and Caius, formerly from Oxford.

  • Crone, Patricia. Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 1987.

  • Hinds, Martin. & Conrad, Lawrence I. (ED.) & Bacharach, Jere L. (ED.) & Crone, Patricia (ED.) With an introduction by G. R. HATING. Studies in Early Islamic History New Ed.  Princeton, 1996.

  • Crone, Patricia. Roman, Provincial and Islamic Law. 1987

  • The Rise of Islam in the World by Patricia Crone in Robinson, Francis, editor The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World Cambridge University Press Cambridge 1998.

Crowe, Yolande.

  • Crowe, Yolande. "Gujarat and Mamluk Egypt: A Pattern Link" in South Asian Archaeology 1985. Frifelt, Karen (edited by). Moesgaard Museum, Denmark, 1-5 July 1985. Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies, Occasional Papers; no. 4. London: Curzon Press/Riverdale, Maryland: The Riverdale Company, 1989. 459-464.

  • Crowe, Yolande. "Un aperçu des Mamlouks en Anatolie" in Ètudes historiques, 3. Aix-en-Provence, 10-15 September 1971. Aix-en-Provence: Éditions de l'Université de Provence, 1976. 49-51.

Cselenyi, Ladislav.

  • Cselenyi, Ladislav. Oriental Rugs from the Collection of Mr. John Schorscher ; Toronto: 1972. Bausback, Franz: Alte und

Cuerda seca

  • The use of "dry cords" to outline designs to prevent glazes from mixing while being fired. The cords traditionally coated in magenese impregnated grease act as a barrier.

  • A Timurid Cuerda Seca Pottery Star Tile


  • Wedge shaped characters used in ancient middle East for writing particularly on clay tablets.

Curatola, G.

  • Curatola, ed. Arabeschi, Tappeti Classici D'Oriente Dal XVI AL XIX Secolo. 1991,

  • Curatola, G. The Simon and Schuster Book of Oriental Carpets. 1982,

Curtin, Jeremiah

Curtis, Doug.

Curtis, John.

  • Curtis, John: Ancient Persia ; Cambridge, Ma: 1990. 8.5 x 8.5, British Museum 40 CP 50 b/w.

Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh.

  • Curtis Vesta Sarkhosh (Ed.) The Art and Archeology of Ancient Persia; New light on the Parthian and Sasanian Empires. Co-ed. Robert Hillenbrand and Michael Rogers. 1998.

Curzon, George N.

Cutler, Anthony

  • Cutler, Anthony.  Imagery and Ideology in Byzantine Art. 1992.

Cyrus the Great

  • Cyrus the Great 580-529 BC Established Achaemenian Persian empire.

  • Was know for fairness and respect of that which we call human rights.

  • Noted in the Bible for freeing the Jews from the Babylonian captivity and decreeing the rebuilding of the second temple.

J. Barry O'Connell Jr.

Copyright Barry O'Connell 2004 - 2006.
Last revised: March 12, 2009.

Persian Rugs the O'Connell Guides

Tabriz Rugs


Tabriz-Rugs & Carpets

Kashmar Rugs

Isfahan Rugs

Hamadan Rugs

Mashad Rugs

Gabbeh Rugs

Heriz Rugs

Ardabil Rugs

Lylyan Rugs

Turkmen Rugs

Persian Rugs

Turkish Rugs


Oriental Rugs

Persian Carpets

Baluch Rugs,

The Qashqai and Qashqai Rugs

Veramin Rugs

Tribal Rugs












Index to my Rug Notes

How Do I Find An Honest Rug Dealer?