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Ibrahim, `Abd al-Latif.

  • Ibrahim, `Abd al-Latif. "al-Danjawi al-Khatat: Katib al-Watha'iq" in Majallat al-Maktabah al-`Arabiyah. Vol. 1: No. 2. 1963. 73-82.

  • Ibrahim, `Abd al-Latif. "Ibn al-Sa'igh al-Khatat wa-Madrasatuhu" in Majallat al-Maktabah al-`Arabiyah. Vol. 1: No. 3. 1964. 80-93.

Ibrahim Lodhi,

Soltan Ibrahim Mirza

Ibn Hauqal,

  • Ibn Hauqal, Kitab Í¥rat al-Ar? (or Kitab al-Masalik wa al-Mamalik), Kramers (ed.), (Leiden: 1938).


  • Republic of Ichkeria, the breakaway Chechen "Republic"

  • President of Ichkeria Aslan Maskhadov.

  • Ichkeria established diplomatic relations with Taliban.

  • Strong ties to Pakistan extremists and Pakistan ISI.

  • Zelimkhan Andarbayev Former President of Chechnya.al-Qaeda/Moslem Brotherhood liaison and operative.Ichkeria mission to Taliban and Pakistan.


Id al-Fitr

  • The end of Ramadan. This is normally a time of celebration with lavish meals and new clothes if one can afford.


  • A theory put forward by Julius Lessing in his seminal work Orientalische Teppichmuster nach Bildern and Originalen des XV bis XVI Jahrhunderts (Berlin, 1877). Lessing suggests that Oriental rugs reached a high point in the 15th and 16th century which he called the Idealtypus. This Idealtypus or ideal type has been held by the majority of major rug scholars ever since including Bode, Kuhnel, Erdmann, Charles Grant Ellis, and Dr, Murray Eiland Jr.. In practice this theory suggests that the closer to 16th century court art a rug is the older it is and that newer rugs are degenerate forms of the Idealtypus. Opponents of this theory include Annette Ittig Ph.D. and myself (Barry O’Connell).


  • "The name "Ijevan" (13789 v) means "Inn," reflecting the Tavush capital's previous name of Karvansara (though also Istibulagh), stopping place on an important E-W road and also, since 1870, of the railroad. In the place called Hamam-Jala on the bank of the Aghstev are remains of a medieval caravansaray. On the N side of the main road at the W end of town (cannon outside) is a small historical/ethnographic museum reopened in 1999, with a diorama commemorating the entry of the Red Army in 1920. Ijevan has a large (dormant?) rug factory, and wood product factories. There is a 200-bed high-rise hotel built in 1969 on the N side of the main road. In the SW part of town is a S. Hovhannes church. Chamber tombs near the city hospital and a late bronze age cemetery on the left bank of river attest early occupation of the site." http://www.usa.am/armenia.html


  • The Igder were one of the 23 original tribes of the Oghuz. The main body of the Igder joined with the Chodor Turkmen.

  • A town in east Turkey that once was Armenian until the genocide.



  • An Il is a political/military confederation of aymaqs. It is where one ruling elite controls a number of aymaqs (tribes). The leader is often called the Il-Khan. Ils can either be a natural occurrence as a result of the dominance of a "strong man" or they can be a creation of the state.

  • See Tribe


Illulian, R.

  • Illulian, R. Suzani. Milano: 1990.

  • Illulian & C. S.N.C.
    Via Anfossi, 19, Milan
    Tele. 02/5460161


  • Turkmen tribe believed to weave rugs but their rugs are not at this point fully understood. At one point Dr. Jon Thompson suggested that what is now the Eagle Group was woven by the Imreli. Later he took a step back from a firm conclusion. That is not to say however that he was wrong.


Inderfurth, Karl F.


  • India became independent on 15 August 1947

  • Pakistan took our military assistance but used it with c as the focus of their preparedness. The US did not see India as a threat and we meant the aid to be focused on the USSR. Hoopes. The Limits of Intervention. Page 40.

  • In response to the indo/China border dispute of 1962 where China threatened force the US began to give military assistance to the Indians. Hoopes. The Limits of Intervention. Page 41.

  • In response to our aid to India, Pakistan turns to Red China for military aid. Hoopes. The Limits of Intervention. Page 42.

  • The 1965 India Pakistan War.
    Pakistan sent thousands of troops into the Indian state of Kashmir to use terrorism to create world attention on the Kashmir situation. Instead of treating the incursion as a native uprising the Indians invaded Pakistan to cut off the Pakistan troops. Pakistan in turn invaded Kashmir and tried to cut the one major supply line to the Indian troops at the front. India countered by invading in force at Lahore and Pakistan crumbled. The Indian strength and resolve was a surprise especially to the Pakistani army. Johnson cut US aid to both sides. Hoopes. The Limits of Intervention. Page 42.

Indianapolis Museum of Art

  • Indianapolis Museum of Art

  • 1200 West 38th Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, 46208.4196. For general information, please call 317.923.1331.

Indictor, Norman.

Indictor, Rina.

  • Indictor, Rina. Contributing Editors, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.


  • Indigo is a blue dye which is commonly used for blue jeans and carpets. It is a naturally occurring dye but is now virtually always synthetic. The range of colors goes from a very light blue to a blue black called surmey. It has been suggested that abrash is a sign of natural Indigo but I am inclined to discount that as dealer legend.

  • Indigotin is the active dye part. It is not water soluble and the dye process is rather complex. When the dye is applied it is yellow but on exposure to air it turns blue.

  • India was the primary source of Indigo It was grown near towns such as Bayana near Agra. It remained a major export until being replaced by New World sources in the mid 1800s. (Richards, John F. The Mughal Empire. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Page 197.)

Indyk, Martin.

  • Martin Indyk was Assistant Secretary of State for the Near East and then the first Jewish Ambassador to Israel. Indyk lost his security clearance in a scandal but was not dismissed. For a period of time the Ambassador had to have an escort to enter Main State.

  • Founder of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy

  • Indyk is Australian and become a US citizen until 1993. Very active in the Israeli lobby in Washington. Named first Jewish Ambassador to Israel by Bill Clinton. Indyk is said to have had secret meetings with former Mossad chief, Ephraim Halevy in August and failed to inform the State Department either before or after the events. Supposedly Indyk had his clearance pulled for "sloppy handling of classified information". http://www.blythe.org/Intelligence/readme/372sum

  • Ambassador Martin Indyk an Israeli Spy?


  • Zakatala is the capitol of the Zakatala district in the Sheki-Zakatala region of Azeribaijan. The population is primarily Ingilo (aka Ingiloy). The Ingilo are Sunni Moslim Georgians and are seen as culturally distinct from the main body of Georgian people. So while ethno-linguistically akin to Georgians. religion creates a major point of cultural seperation.

  • Guide to Zakatala rugs

Inman, Bobby Ray, Admiral USN Retired

Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies

  • Washington DC. based think tank with a seeming pro-Israei bias.

  • Paul Michael Wihbey is strategic fellow.

Intelligence Comunirty

  • The Intelligence community is made up of 13 govermental agencies and organizations:

Director of Central Intelligence

Department of Defense

  • Defense Intelligence Agency

    • Assessment of targeting and battle damage assessment, weapons proliferation, warning of impending crises, support to peacekeeping operations, maintenance of data bases on foreign military organizations and their equipment and, as necessary, support to UN operations and US allies. In addition to providing intelligence to warfighters, DIA has other important customers, including policymakers in the Department of Defense and members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Additionally, DIA is tasked with asessing foreign weapons systems for US weapons planners and for the weapons acquisition community. DIA coordinates and synthesizes military intelligence analysis for Defense officials and military commanders worldwide, with the intelligence components of the military services and the US unified commands .

  • National Security Agency

    • Data collection, satalite, phone, cell phone, email etc... This agency collects mare data than it is possible to use, still it does some great work.

  • National Imagery & Mapping Agency

    • NIMA was formed through the merger of, the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA), the Central Imagery Office (CIO), the Defense Dissemination Program Office (DDPO), and the National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC), plus the related parts of certain imagery-related programs, elements, and personnel from the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO), and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

  • National Reconnaissance Office

    • This office combines all of our satalite spying capability.

  • Air Force Intelligence

  • Army Intelligence

  • Marine Corps Intelligence

  • Navy Intelligence. ONI Office of Naval Inteligence,

Departmental Intelligence Elements (non-DoD)

  • Department of State

    • In the department of State the statutory authority rests in the Secretary of State to conduct the foreign policy and oversight of all US Government activities overseas. To collect such intyelligence as is nessasary and to provide oversight to the CIA, NSA, FBI, DEA, and Justice, State has it's own intelligence capacity, the INR.

  • Department of Energy

  • Department of the Treasury

  • Federal Bureau of Investigation

International Hajji Baba Society

  • The Washington Hajji Baba is one of the world's most influential Oriental Rug clubs.

  • Wendell Swan is the President.


  • Iranian program under M.R. Pahlavi circa 1964 similar to US Peace Corp but for domestic use. the Corp was part;;y to educate his people and partially to erase the Turkic elements of Iranian culture. This is part of the

  • White Revolution.


Irons, William.

  • Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

  • Received B.A. in History and M.A. in Anthropology from University of Michigan.

  • Attended London School of Economics and did extensive fieldwork in Iran on various aspects of the Turkmen.

  • Taught at Johns Hopkins University and Pennsylvania State University.

  • Currently is in Department of Anthropology at Northwestern University.

  • Consultant to National Geographic Society.

  • Consultant to Time-Life Books.

  • "Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior. An Anthropological Perspective." Co-editor with N.A. Chagnan, Scituate, Massachusetts.

  • "Perspectives on Nomadism", Co-editor with Dyson-Heedson, Leiden, 1972.

  • "The Yomut Turkmen: A Study of Social Organization Among a Central Asian Turkic Speaking Population", Anthropological Paper Number 58, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, 1975.

  • "The Place of Carpet Weaving In Turkmen Society". Washington DC: ICOC 1980.

Irwin, John.

Irwin, Robert.


  • ISA (International Security Affairs) is the Secretary of Defence's chief advisors when military and diplomacy cross. ISA works closely with State. Hoopes. The Limits of Intervention. Page 33.

Isaacson, Richard.



  • Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence. Functions as a cross between the CIA and a terrorist organization.

  • The ISI was the creator of Taliban.


  • A major world religion that worships a god called Allah.

  • Islam is based on the Qur'an, a collection of stories from Mohammed a prophet of Allah. He could not write so he told the stories and his followers recorded them.

  • Attempts to equate Allah with the one true (Judeo-Christian) God are less than compelling. Christianity and Islam are diametrically opposed. Only one can be true. If you believe the Bible then Islam is wrong. It is obvious that they worship different Gods.

  • Moslems accept Jesus as a Prophet of God but for a Christian to accept Mohammed as a Prophet of the one true God is heresy.

  • The Koran states that Jesus was "faultless" (without sin) and that he rose from the dead. According to the Koran Mohammed was neither "faultless" nor did he rise from the dead.

  • Answering-Islam.org

  • Five Pillars of Islam

  • An Introduction to Islam

  • Taliban and Islam

Islamic Army of Aden

  • Islamic Army of Aden is a Yemen-based fundamentalist Islamic organization that took 16 tourists hostage in 1998. Abu Hamza has acted as a spokesmen for the Islamic Army of Aden. Linked to al-Qaeda.

Islamic Group

Islamic Jihad.

  • Egyptian Terrorist organization that merged into al-Qaeda. In 1981 Islamic Jihad cooperated with other groups to assassinate Egyptian President Anwar el- Sadat. In 1995 Islamic Jihad and al-Qaeda cooperated to attempt the assassination of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. The failed attempt brought drastically increased pressure to bear on the organization and they became increasingly dependent on al-Qaeda. By 1998 Islamic Jihad and al-Qaeda formed the World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders and Islamic Jihad ceased to function as an independent organization. The merger also spelled the last gasp of Islamic Jihad as an anti Egyptian Government effort and shifted to focus on Osama Bin Laden plans to attack the US and her allies.

  • As much as any other factor, pressure on Islamic Jihad by the Egyptian Government made it impossible for the group to function as they had in Egypt. Combining with al-Qaeda was their only way to survive.

  • 1990 Egypt began refusing entry to the returning Egyptian Mujaheddin from Afghanistan. Islamic Jihad began moving its people to Yemen.

    1993 Islamic Jihad failed to kill the Egyptian interior minister with a suicide bomber.

    1993 Islamic Jihad failed to kill the Egyptian Prime Minister but did kill an innocent child.

    1993 -94 Islamic Jihad bases in Yemen came under increasing pressure so Islamic Jihad operatives began moving to the al-Qaeda Sudan base established by Osama Bin Laden or to Albania.

    1995 Islamic Jihad bombed the Egyptian embassy in Pakistan, 17 dead and 60 wounded

    1997 85 members of Islamic Jihad were arrested for an attempt to bomb the Khan el-Khalili bazaar a popular Egyptian tourist attraction.

    1997 Islamic Jihad sent letter bombs to the London UK, New York and Washington offices of the newspaper Al Hayat.

    1998 Islamic Jihad and al-Qaeda bombed two United States Embassies in Africa, 224 people died.

  • An Investigation in Egypt Illustrates Al Qaeda's Web

Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

  • Radical Islamic terrorist group dedicated to the Islamic fundamentalist overthrow of the Government of Uzbekistan. Part of the al-Qaeda network.

  • Wahabbi Uzbek Commander of Taleqan Juma Namangani

Islamic Observation Center

Ismail Safavi,


  • Weed in Persia, Afghanistan, and Central Asia that produces a yellow dye.


  • Saudi Arabia's secret service. Run for many years by Prince Turki al-Faisal al-Saud, the Istakhbarat was active in Afghanistan going back to the Russian Invasion.


Iten-Maritz, J.

  • Iten-Maritz, J. Turkish Carpets. 1976,

  • Iten-Maritz, J. Turkish Carpets. Kodansha International, Tokyo and New York: 1977.

  • Iten-Maritz, J: Le Tapis Turc. Anatolie - Asie Mineure. Fribourg 1976 2.200:- SEK

  • Iten-Maritz, J: Turkish Carpets. Herford 1977.

Itihad-i-Islami Baraye Azadi Afghanistan

Ittig, Annette

Ivan the Terrible

  • Ivan IV "the Terrible", reigned 1533-84

  • Ivan IV Vasiljevich the Terrible (1530-1584) was grandson of Ivan the great and the last of the Moscovy Rus Princes and the First Tsar or Czar. He became Tsar in about 1547.

  • Son of Vasilj III.

  • Ivan's dim witted son Fyodor became the second Czar with Boris Godunov (the third Czar) as his regent.

Ivanov, A. A.

  • Akimushkin, O. F. and Ivanov, A. A. " Une ecole artisique meconnue Boxara au XVIle siecle." In Art et sociiti dans le monde iranien, ed. Chahriyar Adle. Paris, 1982. Pp. 127-39.

Izady, Mehrdad


J. Barry O'Connell Jr.

Copyright Barry O'Connell 2004 - 2006.
Last revised: March 13, 2009.

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