York Times Article
on the Pazaryk
Major Rug Sites
on the Shaykh Lutfallah Mosque
to the Best Rug Societies
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Alabama
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Arizona
to the Best Carpet Dealers of California
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Colorado
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Delaware
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Florida
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Georgia
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Hawaii
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Illinois
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Indiana
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Kansas
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Kentucky
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Maryland
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Massachusetts
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Missouri
to the Best Carpet Dealers of New Hampshire
to the Best Carpet Dealers of New Jersey
to the Best Carpet Dealers of New Mexico
to the Best Carpet Dealers of New York
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Oregon
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Pennsylvania
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Tennessee
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Texas
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Vermont
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Virginia
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Washington
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Washington DC
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Italy
to the Best Carpet Dealers of Germany
to the Best Carpet Producers and Dealers of Turkey
to the Best Carpet Dealers of the United Kingdom
Rugs By Ehsan Afzalzadeh Naini Of Iran Rug Co.
to the Best Carpet Producers and Dealers of Iran
to the Best Auction Houses
to the Best Book Dealers
to the Best Carpet Cleaners and Restorers
to the Best Carpet Producers and Dealers of Central Asia
to the Best Rug & Carpet Appraisers
Main page - SW-Asia.com More Oriental Rug Notes by Barry
Rug Notes Index - I
Ibrahim, `Abd al-Latif.
Ibrahim, `Abd al-Latif.
"al-Danjawi al-Khatat: Katib
al-Watha'iq" in Majallat al-Maktabah
al-`Arabiyah. Vol. 1: No. 2. 1963. 73-82.
Ibrahim, `Abd al-Latif. "Ibn
al-Sa'igh al-Khatat wa-Madrasatuhu" in
Majallat al-Maktabah al-`Arabiyah. Vol. 1: No. 3.
Republic of Ichkeria, the
breakaway Chechen "Republic"
President of Ichkeria Aslan Maskhadov.
Ichkeria established diplomatic
relations with Taliban.
Strong ties to Pakistan
extremists and Pakistan ISI.
Andarbayev Former President of Chechnya.al-Qaeda/Moslem
Brotherhood liaison and operative.Ichkeria
mission to Taliban
A theory put forward by Julius
Lessing in his seminal work Orientalische
Teppichmuster nach Bildern and Originalen des XV
bis XVI Jahrhunderts (Berlin, 1877). Lessing
suggests that Oriental rugs reached a high point
in the 15th and 16th century which he called the
Idealtypus. This Idealtypus or ideal type has
been held by the majority of major rug scholars
ever since including Bode, Kuhnel, Erdmann, Charles Grant Ellis, and Dr, Murray Eiland Jr.. In
practice this theory suggests that the closer to
16th century court art a rug is the older it is
and that newer rugs are degenerate forms of the
Idealtypus. Opponents of this theory include
Annette Ittig Ph.D. and myself (Barry
"The name "Ijevan"
(13789 v) means "Inn," reflecting the
Tavush capital's previous name of Karvansara
(though also Istibulagh), stopping place on an
important E-W road and also, since 1870, of the
railroad. In the place called Hamam-Jala on the
bank of the Aghstev are remains of a medieval
caravansaray. On the N side of the main road at
the W end of town (cannon outside) is a small
historical/ethnographic museum reopened in 1999,
with a diorama commemorating the entry of the Red
Army in 1920. Ijevan has a large (dormant?) rug
factory, and wood product factories. There is a
200-bed high-rise hotel built in 1969 on the N
side of the main road. In the SW part of town is
a S. Hovhannes church. Chamber tombs near the
city hospital and a late bronze age cemetery on
the left bank of river attest early occupation of
the site." http://www.usa.am/armenia.html
Illulian, R. Suzani. Milano:
Illulian & C. S.N.C.
Via Anfossi, 19, Milan
India became independent on 15
Pakistan took our military
assistance but used it with c as the focus of
their preparedness. The US did not see India as a
threat and we meant the aid to be focused on the
Limits of Intervention. Page 40.
In response to the indo/China
border dispute of 1962 where China threatened
force the US began to give military assistance to
the Indians. Hoopes.
Limits of Intervention. Page 41.
In response to our aid to India,
Pakistan turns to Red China for military aid. Hoopes. The
Limits of Intervention. Page 42.
The 1965 India Pakistan War.
Pakistan sent thousands of troops into the Indian
state of Kashmir to use terrorism to create world
attention on the Kashmir situation. Instead of
treating the incursion as a native uprising the
Indians invaded Pakistan to cut off the Pakistan
troops. Pakistan in turn invaded Kashmir and
tried to cut the one major supply line to the
Indian troops at the front. India countered by
invading in force at Lahore and Pakistan
crumbled. The Indian strength and resolve was a
surprise especially to the Pakistani army.
Johnson cut US aid to both sides. Hoopes. The
Limits of Intervention. Page 42.
Museum of Art
Indianapolis Museum of Art
1200 West 38th Street,
Indianapolis, Indiana, 46208.4196. For general
information, please call 317.923.1331.
Indigo is a blue dye which is
commonly used for blue jeans and carpets. It is a
naturally occurring dye but is now virtually
always synthetic. The range of colors goes from a
very light blue to a blue black called surmey. It
has been suggested that abrash is a sign of
natural Indigo but I am inclined to discount that
as dealer legend.
Indigotin is the active dye part.
It is not water soluble and the dye process is
rather complex. When the dye is applied it is
yellow but on exposure to air it turns blue.
India was the primary source of
Indigo It was grown near towns such as Bayana
near Agra. It remained a major export until being
replaced by New World sources in the mid 1800s. (Richards,
John F. The Mughal Empire. Cambridge,
England: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Page
Martin Indyk was Assistant
Secretary of State for the Near East and then the
first Jewish Ambassador to Israel. Indyk lost his
security clearance in a scandal but was not
dismissed. For a period of time the Ambassador
had to have an escort to enter Main State.
Founder of the Washington
Institute for Near East Policy
Indyk is Australian and become a
US citizen until 1993. Very active in the Israeli
lobby in Washington. Named first Jewish
Ambassador to Israel by Bill Clinton. Indyk is
said to have had secret meetings with former
Mossad chief, Ephraim Halevy in August and failed
to inform the State Department either before or
after the events. Supposedly Indyk had his
clearance pulled for "sloppy handling of
classified information". http://www.blythe.org/Intelligence/readme/372sum
Martin Indyk an Israeli Spy?
Ray, Admiral USN Retired
for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies
targeting and battle damage
assessment, weapons proliferation,
warning of impending crises, support
to peacekeeping operations,
maintenance of data bases on foreign
military organizations and their
equipment and, as necessary, support
to UN operations and US allies. In
addition to providing intelligence to
warfighters, DIA has other important
customers, including policymakers in
the Department of Defense and members
of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Additionally, DIA is tasked with
asessing foreign weapons systems for
US weapons planners and for the
weapons acquisition community. DIA
coordinates and synthesizes military
intelligence analysis for Defense
officials and military commanders
worldwide, with the intelligence
components of the military services
and the US unified commands .
National Security Agency
satalite, phone, cell phone, email
etc... This agency collects mare data
than it is possible to use, still it
does some great work.
Imagery & Mapping Agency
NIMA was formed
through the merger of, the Defense
Mapping Agency (DMA), the Central
Imagery Office (CIO), the Defense
Dissemination Program Office (DDPO),
and the National Photographic
Interpretation Center (NPIC), plus
the related parts of certain
imagery-related programs, elements,
and personnel from the Defense
Intelligence Agency (DIA), the
National Reconnaissance Office (NRO),
the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance
Office (DARO), and the Central
Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Intelligence. ONI Office of Naval
Intelligence Elements (non-DoD)
Hajji Baba Society
Department of Anthropology,
Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.
Received B.A. in History and M.A.
in Anthropology from University of Michigan.
Attended London School of
Economics and did extensive fieldwork in Iran on
various aspects of the Turkmen.
Taught at Johns Hopkins
University and Pennsylvania State University.
Currently is in Department of
Anthropology at Northwestern University.
Consultant to National Geographic
Consultant to Time-Life Books.
"Evolutionary Biology and
Human Social Behavior. An Anthropological
Perspective." Co-editor with N.A. Chagnan,
Nomadism", Co-editor with Dyson-Heedson,
"The Yomut Turkmen: A Study
of Social Organization Among a Central Asian
Turkic Speaking Population", Anthropological
Paper Number 58, Museum of Anthropology,
University of Michigan, 1975.
"The Place of Carpet Weaving
In Turkmen Society". Washington DC: ICOC
A major world religion that
worships a god called Allah.
Islam is based on the Qur'an, a collection of
stories from Mohammed a prophet of Allah. He
could not write so he told the stories and his
followers recorded them.
Attempts to equate Allah with the
one true (Judeo-Christian) God are less than
compelling. Christianity and Islam are
diametrically opposed. Only one can be true. If
you believe the Bible then Islam is wrong. It is
obvious that they worship different Gods.
Moslems accept Jesus as a Prophet
of God but for a Christian to accept Mohammed as
a Prophet of the one true God is heresy.
The Koran states that Jesus was
"faultless" (without sin) and that he
rose from the dead. According to the Koran
Mohammed was neither "faultless" nor
did he rise from the dead.
Introduction to Islam
Army of Aden
Egyptian Terrorist organization
that merged into al-Qaeda.
In 1981 Islamic Jihad cooperated with other
groups to assassinate Egyptian President Anwar
el- Sadat. In 1995 Islamic Jihad and al-Qaeda cooperated
to attempt the assassination of Egyptian
Mubarak. The failed attempt brought
drastically increased pressure to bear on the
organization and they became increasingly
dependent on al-Qaeda.
By 1998 Islamic Jihad and al-Qaeda formed the
World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and
Crusaders and Islamic Jihad ceased to function as
an independent organization. The merger also
spelled the last gasp of Islamic Jihad as an anti
Egyptian Government effort and shifted to focus
on Osama Bin Laden
plans to attack the US and her allies.
As much as any other factor,
pressure on Islamic Jihad by the Egyptian
Government made it impossible for the group to
function as they had in Egypt. Combining with al-Qaeda was their
only way to survive.
1990 Egypt began refusing entry
to the returning Egyptian Mujaheddin from
Afghanistan. Islamic Jihad began moving its
people to Yemen.
1993 Islamic Jihad failed to kill
the Egyptian interior minister with a suicide
1993 Islamic Jihad failed to kill
the Egyptian Prime Minister but did kill an
1993 -94 Islamic Jihad bases in
Yemen came under increasing pressure so Islamic
Jihad operatives began moving to the al-Qaeda Sudan base
established by Osama Bin
Laden or to Albania.
1995 Islamic Jihad bombed the
Egyptian embassy in Pakistan, 17 dead and 60
1997 85 members of Islamic Jihad
were arrested for an attempt to bomb the Khan
el-Khalili bazaar a popular Egyptian tourist
1997 Islamic Jihad sent letter
bombs to the London UK, New York and Washington
offices of the newspaper Al Hayat.
1998 Islamic Jihad and al-Qaeda bombed two
United States Embassies in Africa, 224 people
Investigation in Egypt Illustrates Al Qaeda's Web
Movement of Uzbekistan
Iten-Maritz, J. Turkish Carpets.
Iten-Maritz, J. Turkish Carpets.
Kodansha International, Tokyo and New York: 1977.
Iten-Maritz, J: Le Tapis Turc.
Anatolie - Asie Mineure. Fribourg 1976 2.200:-
Iten-Maritz, J: Turkish Carpets.
Baraye Azadi Afghanistan
Ivan IV "the Terrible",
Ivan IV Vasiljevich the Terrible
(1530-1584) was grandson of Ivan the great and
the last of the Moscovy Rus Princes and the First
Tsar or Czar. He became Tsar in about 1547.
Son of Vasilj III.
Ivan's dim witted son Fyodor
became the second Czar with Boris Godunov (the
third Czar) as his regent.
Ivanov, A. A.
Akimushkin, O. F. and Ivanov, A.
A. " Une ecole artisique meconnue Boxara au
XVIle siecle." In Art et sociiti dans le
monde iranien, ed. Chahriyar Adle. Paris, 1982.
J. Barry O'Connell Jr.
Copyright Barry O'Connell 2004 - 2006.
Last revised: March 13, 2009.