Nazmiyal Antique Rugs
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Rug Notes Index - K

Hagop Manoyan Antique RugsNazmiyal Antique Rugs


Kabul River, Afghanistan

Kaempfer, Engelbert

Kaffel, Ralph.

Kahlenberg, Mary Hunt.

Kahlenberg, Michael.

Kajitani, Nobuko.

  • Formerly Conservator in Charge, Department of Textile Conservation, The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Adjunct Professor of Conservation New York University

  • A delightfully brilliant woman whose razor sharp mind is only surpassed by her charm and wit. One of the world’s most important rug scholars in a very quiet way.

  • The Textile Museum Journal, International Editorial Advisory Board Nobuko Kajitani 1999-2001



  • Also known as:

    • Kaplan group

    • Caliph State

    • Association of Islamic Unions and Societies

    • Federation of Islamic Associations and Communities

  • A 1,100 – 1,300 strong militant Islamic group based in Cologne Germany. Founded by Turkish born Muhammed Metin Kaplan A.K.A. "caliph of Cologne". Kaplan is serving a four-year jail sentence for ordering the murder 1997 slaying of rival Turkish extremist Halil Ibrahim Sofu. The Kaplan group was linked to the al-Qaeda network in 1996 and 1997 but not more recently.

Kalila and Dimna:

  • The Tales of Kalila and Dimna, by an Indian author named Bidpai were popular tales and frequently translated by Arab into Arabic in the thirteenth and fourteenth century and were popular throughout the Islamic world.]

  • Atil, Esin. Kalila wa Dimna: Fables from a Fourteenth-Century Arabic Manuscript. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981

  • Walzer, Sofie. "The Mamluk Illuminated Manuscripts of Kalila wa Dimna" in Aus der Welt der islamischen Kunst: Festschrift für Ernst Kühnel zum 75. Geburtstag am 26.10.1957. Ettinghausen, Richard (edited by). Berlin: Gebr. Mann, 1959. 195-206.

  • Walzer, Sofie. "An Illustrated Leaf from a Lost Mamluk Kalilah wa-Dimnah Manuscript" in Ars Orientalis. Vol. 2. 1957. 503-505.

  • A Safavid Blue and White Bottle 17th C.

Kalje, Qadir.


  • The Kalmuq are Mongols The Kalmuqs are Lamaist Buddhist. 

  • Dialects include: Kalmuk, Kalmuck, Kalmack, Qalmaq, Kalmytskii Jazyk, Khal Mag Oirat, Volga Oirat, and European Oirat. Kalmuk is Western Mongolian. 

  • The Kalmuqs of Astrakhan and the Volga were absorbed into the Horde of Jochi the eldest son of Cingis Qan.

  • The Kalmuqs were the remnants of the Golden Horde and the White Horde.  When Uzbek Khan converted to Islam he led many Mongols to Islam which forced a split between Uzbek Mongols and Kalmuk Mongols.


  • The city of Kandahar is in Southwest Afghanistan and has been the dividing line between Persia and India for hundreds of years at least. 

  • Circa 1520 it was one of the principle kingdoms of Babur's empire. 

  • Today Kandahar is primarily Pashtun.

  • Originally founded and named after Alexander (Iskander) the Great. Kandahar as we know it today is very close to how it was laid out by Ahmed Shah Durrani in 1761. Durrani was the founder of the modern Afghan monarchy. he is buried in an octagonal mausoleum next to the shrine of the prophet's cloak.

  • Kandahar has served as the headquarter of Taliban and formerly the home of Mullah Omar

  • See also Kandahar_Afghanistan

Kane, Carolyn.

  • Kane, Carolyn. "Review of Tissus Islamiques de la Collection Pfister, by Georgette Cornu, Odile Valansot, and Hélčne Meyer" in JESHO. Vol. 38. 1995. 99-104.

Kane, Tina.

Kaplan, Muzaffer.

Kaplan, Muhammed Metin.

  • Turkish born Muhammed Metin Kaplan A.K.A. "caliph of Cologne" is the founder of Kalifatsstaat. Kaplan is serving a four-year jail sentence for ordering the murder 1997 slaying of rival Turkish extremist Halil Ibrahim Sofu.





Karadag, Recep.

  • Bohmer, Harald. and Karadag, Recep. "Dye Analysis of Ottoman Brocades and Velvets From the Topkapi Museum, and Other Silk Textiles". Hamburg/Berlin ICOC7 1993.

Karadag, Vedat.





  • KARAKALPAK, Uzbekistan
    SHORT HISTORY: A Turkish population existing since the 12th century. Their name comes from a Kazakh word meaning Black Hat, referring the hat worn by these nomad horsemen. Their ruler signed a treaty with Emperor Peter the Great in 1722. In 1811, they become vassals of the Khans of Khiva and Kungrad. In 1855, the title of Khan was adopted by their ruler. In 1873, Karakalpak was annexed by the Russian Empire. In 1925, it became an autonomous republic and in 1932, an autonomous Soviet Republic. Since 5/12/1936, reattached to Uzbekistan.Karakalpak (Uzbekistan)

  • Tribe in Central Asia that produces rugs similar to Turkmen or Uzbek rugs.

  • They are neither Turkmen or Uzbek.

  • Nagel A figure-8 Karakalpak rug

  • Karakalpak

  • Karakalpak Cuisine

  • Karakalpak Applied Arts

  • Ethnologue report for language code: KAC

Origin of Karakul Sheep Page 445


Karamania and the Karaman Turkmen

Karavan Art’s,

Karez or Qanat System

Karnouk, Gloria S.

  • Karnouk, Gloria S. "Form and Ornament of the Cairene Bahri Minbar" in AI. Vol. 17. 1981. 113-139.


Karzai, Hamid.

  • Hamid Karzai is the son of the late Abdul Ahad Karzai. With the death of his father Hamid Karzai became the leader of the Popalzai Tribe which ruled Afghanistan from 1747 to 1818. Karzai is a blood relative of King Zahir Shah's wife. Early on Karzai was a Taliban supporter but he changed with the death of his father.

  • Karzai went in to Afghanistan well before the fall of Taliban to raise his tribe against the Taliban. Engaged in running gun battles where he was badly out gunned Karzai was able to fight the Taliban while recruiting allies.

  • Ahmed Karzai, is a brother of tribal chief Hamid Karzai,

  • Quayum Karzai is a brother of tribal chief Hamid Karzai,

Karzai, Ahad Khan.

  • Ahad Khan Karzai was assassinated in Quetta by a motorcyclist who killed Karzai as he returned home from his Mosque. He was the leader of the Popalzai tribe one of the major Durrani Pashtun tribes. I believe that the killer was from Pakistani ISI or possibly al-Qaeda. Most people say Taliban was the killer but they are all about the same thing.

  • Abdul Ahad Karzai was a Senator in Kabul under the reign of King Zahir Shah.




Katzenberg, D.S.

  • Katzenberg, D.S. And Eagles Sweep Across The Sky. 1977,

  • Katzenberg, D.S. The Great American Cover-Up: Counterpanes of the 18th and 19th Centuries. Record of the Baltimore Museum.

Katzenstein, Ranee A.

  • Katzenstein, Ranee A. "Christian Themes in Thirteenth-Century Islamic Metalwork" in Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Vol. 1. 1983. 53-68.

Kaufman, K. P. von.

Kaufman, Suzanne.

  • Suzanne Kaufman is an officer of the Chicago Rug Society.

  • Rug Societies

Kayseri Turkey



  • Mid 1460's Janibek and Kirai split from he White Horde (Mongol) and took their followers to land to what is now Kazakhstan. Olcott, The Kazakhs. page 8. 

  • N. B. I translate Kazak, Kazakh, etc.. as "those who have left the Horde" and therefore it was this split of leaving the horde under Janibek that establishes the Kazakhs as a people. 

  • Breeds of Livestock - Kazakh Horse


Kayvan, Iradj.

Kazanci, Erol

Kearney, Lawrence.

  • Lawrence Kearney is an antique textile dealer and collector from the Boston area.

  • Trusted Resource List - Rug & Carpet Dealers In The U.S.

  • Collectors, Dealers, and The Future of Rug Collecting" Santa Monica: ACOR 3, 1996.

  • "What's a Weaving Masterpiece?" Denver: ACOR4 Focus Session, 1998.

  • "Collecting: A Confession" Denver: ACOR4 Focus Session, 1998.

  • Rug Societies

Keers, Vincent.

  • Vincent is a regular on www.Turkotek.com and adds an interesting perspective to the conversation.

  • Vincent's Cave is closed.

The Keir Collection


Kell, Thomas.

  • Kell, Thomas and R. Jay Friedman: Oriental Rug Price Guide. Carpenteria: 1977.

Kendrick, A.F.

  • Kendrick, Albert Frank

  • Kendrick, A.F. & Tattersall, C.E.C. Hand-Woven Carpets: Oriental and Occidental. 1922, Scribner's Sons, N.Y./ Benn Brothers

  • Kendrick, A.F. & Tattersall, C.E.C. Hand-Woven Carpets: Oriental and Occidental. 1973, Dover,

  • Kendrick, A.F. Catalogue of Textiles from Burying-Grounds in Egypt, 1: Graeco-Roman Period. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1920.

  • Kendrick, A.F. Catalogue of Textiles from Burying-Grounds in Egypt, 2: Period of Transition and of Christian Emblems. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1921.

  • Kendrick, A.F. Catalogue of Textiles from Burying-Grounds in Egypt, 3: Coptic Period. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1929.

  • Kendrick, A.F. English Needlework.  London: Adam & Charles Black, 1933.

  • Kendrick, Albert Frank and C. E. C. Tattersall, Fine Carpets in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Scribners, New York. 1924

George Kennan (the elder)

The Kennan Institute,

  • The Kennan Institute, One Woodrow Wilson Plaza, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20004-3027. 

Kennedy, Alan.

  • Kennedy, Alan. Central Asian Ikats ; Philadelphia: 1980.

  • Kennedy, Alan, Contributing Editors, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.


Kerki Bokhara Uzbekistan

Kerimov, Latif.


Kermes Dye

Keshishian Adam,

Keshishian, Harold.

Keshishian, James Mark. A.S.A.

Keshishian Mark,

Keshishian Mark,

Kévorkian, R.H.

Khadija, Lynn.

  • Khadija, Lynn. "Designs on Painted Ayyubid/Mamluk Pottery from Rujm el-Kursi, 1990 Season" in Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan. Vol. 36. 1992. 345-356.

Khal Mohammadi.

Khalili, Nasser D.

Khalili, Usted Karim.

Khalilzad, Zalmay.

Khalis, Yunus.

  • Mullah Yunus Khalis was the Mujahedin commander in Jalalabad in the province of Nangahar during the Russian war. He was Mullah Omar's commander and is said not to differ fundamentally with Mullah Omar's extreme interpretation of Islam. Khalis is Khugianay Pashtun, rumored to be in poor health. Khalis was born in Gandomak Nangahar in 1919.

  • Mullah Yunus Khalis retook Jalalabad from Taliban 11/14/01

  • Khalis believed that the only Constitution Afghanistan needed was the Koran. His resistance went back to at least 1974 where he accused Prince Daoud the Prime Minister of being a Communist. He was noted as one of the few resistance leaders who actually led men in battle. Khalis led a breakaway faction of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezb-i-Islami. Khalis operated in Nangahar and in Kabul. He mixed traditional guerilla warfare with urban terrorism, murder and kidnapping.

  • Longtime foes revive struggles for power


Khamseh Federation

Khamseh Province of Persia


Genghis Khan

Muhammad Shaybani Khan

Khan, Ismail.

  • Ismail Khan, known as the ``Lion of Herat,'' Age 54 or mid sixties. Ethnically Khan is a Farsiwan Tajik.

  • Ismail Khan has been one of the most important Afghans of the last 22 years. Khan effectively started the Afghan Russian war when he refused to open fire on a mob. Instead he started the Herat massacre killing 350 Russian advisors and their families. This massacre spread and was a key factor in raising opposition to the Russian invasion. He was the leader of the resistance in the Herat area and became Governor of the region after the war.

  • Taliban bribed Abdul Malik Pahlawan to sell him out. He was given to Taliban and imprisoned. He escaped and sought refuge in Iran. Iran has used him as a threat against Taliban finally backing him to invade Afghanistan in summer of 2001. He should be seen as Iran's man in the current conflict.

  • Just prior to the fall of Herat Ismail Khan allowed Green Beret advisors to assist his army and coordinate air strikes. Received US Support 11/10/2001

  • Iranian Special Forces Reportedly Fight Alongside US in Battle for Herat

  • It appears that Hezb-i-Wadat under Usted Karim Khalili is working closely with Ismail Khan and Iran.

Khanlyg Rugs

  • Khanlyg is a town due east of Kubatly. the area is in the southern part of the Karabakh region in Azerbaijan and north of the Karadagh rug producing region of Iran along the Azerbaijan border.

Khar Province of Persia


  • Khargai looms are the new looms in Afghanistan and Pakistan made out of steel. Better looms allow weavers to weave better rugs. This rug is typical of the new rugs, attractive design with straighter sides.

Khasi And Jaintia Hills India


  • Pronounced "cot" is a leaf of the Catha edulis plant found in east Africa and southern Arabia. It is chewed for its euphoric and stimulative effects. It is very popular in Somalia and Yemen and is now spreading world wide with the help of al-Qaeda.

Khatibi, Abdelkebir

  • Khatibi, Abdelkebir and A. Amaham: From Sign to Image, The Moroccan Carpet. Casablanca: 1995.

Khattab, Amir.

  • Amir Khattab is a Saudi born Wahabbi extremist of Chechan ancestry. Khattab is a veteran of Afghanistan, the Gulf War and as a rebel commander in Chechnya. He is seen as a al-Qaeda leader and commander in Chechnya. He warned the world of the September 11th attacks The Amir Khattab e-mail

  • Khattab is an expert with land mines and paid his tuition with the index and middle finger of one hand. Khattab went to Afghanistan in 1992. He first showed up in Chechnya in 1994 with the influx of Arab Afghans.

  • The Amir Khattab e-mail

Khelat Baluchistan Pakistan

The Khevsurs of Caucasian Georgia



Khokand Uzbekistan

Khomeine Rugs and Carpets

Khomeini, Ayatollah.



  • Double saddle bags woven in one piece.

Khorremabad Luristan Province Iran

Khorsabad Turkey Sargon's Castle

Khotan Hetian Xinjiang, China

Khotan-Darya River China


Kimble, Greg and Lucille. Kimble

King, Donald.

King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies

  • King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies. The Nuhad es-Said Collection of Islamic Metalwork. Riyadh: King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies, 1985/1405. Additional title: Wahdat al-Fann al-Islami: Majmu`at Nuhad al-Sa`id.

Kinross L.

  • English Historian. deceased.

  • Kinross L. The Ottoman Centuries. New York: Morrow Quill, 1977

Kirchheim, E. Heinrich.

  • E. Heinrich Kirchheim and Waltraut Kirchheim of Stuttgart

  • Prominent European rug collector who assembled the Orient Stars Collection with the help of Alan Marcuson and Eberhart Herrmann, .

  • The Joseph V. McMullan Award

  • H. Kirchheim

  • Kirchheim, H. et al. Orient STARS. text by E. Heinrich Kirchheim, Michael Franses, et al. Published by E. Heinrich Kirchheim and Hali Publications Ltd, 1993.

  • Orient Stars Type A Star Kazak

Kirdok, M.

  • Kirdok, M. Fetzan. 1991,


Kirsch, Irwin.

Kiss Aladar,

  • Kiss Aladar, Ledacs-Szuts Belane: Ismerjuk Meg a Keleti Szonyegeket. Budapest: 1977.


Kitz, Tony.

  • Tony is a top rug dealer in the San Fransisco area. He used to work for Peter Papp. He is a dealer for whom I have a good bit of resepct.


Kleiber, Helmut.

  • Kleiber, Helmut. Afghanistan: History, Culture, Folk Art, Rugs. Landesberg: 1989.

  • Kleiber, Helmut. Turkestan: History, Culture, Folk Art, Rugs. Landesberg: 1991.

  • Kleiber, Helmut. Turkestan: History, Culture, Folk Art, Rugs. Landesberg 1991. German text.

Klimburg, M.

  • Klimburg, M. Ikat, Textile Art from the Silk Road ; Wien: 1993.

Klingner, Jim.

  • "Anatolian Kurdish Rugs", Chicago: ACOR II, 1996

Klingner, J. H.

J. H. Klingner Oriental Carpets,

Klose, Christine.

Knobloch, Edgar.

  • Knobloch, Edgar. Beyond the Oxus, Archaeology, Art and Architecture of Central Asia ; London: 1972.

Knot Tying,

  • A professional Persian Carpet weaver averages roughly 4000 knots a day. A master weaver can do 8000 knots in a day but very few can do it day in and day out. Weavers in Tabriz use a hooked knife and weave about 20 percent more. So if we look at a Nain with 320 knots to the square inch, the weaver probably averaged about 12 or 13 square inches a day. That is equivalent to a one inch strip 12 or 13 inches long. Based on 320 knots to the square inch.

  • There is a myth that children tie better knots. This is completely untrue and child labor today is unheard of except in India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Saddly some American rug producers still participate in child labor. See Yayla Tribal Rugs and Child Labor:


  • "commander of defense troops," (in Turki.) The leaders of the Turkistan National Liberation Movement took on the historical title Korbashi Paksoy, Basmachi

Koets, Ken

  • IICRC Master Cleaner/Master Restorer

  • Father of Nathan Koets

Koets, Nathan

Kolahi, B.

  • Behrouz Kolahi & Eduardo Ceretto. Kazak. 1995,

  • Kolahi, B. I Gabbeh. 1988,

Gallerie Koller

  • For many years a leading German collectable carpet dealer. There was a major Sotheby’s auction of their inventory and I believe the shop is now closed. The Koller’s were very well thought of in carpet collecting circles.



Komaroff, Linda.

  • Curator of Islamic Art, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, USA


  • Komaroff, Linda. "Review of Essays in Islamic Art and Architecture in Honor of Katharina Otto-Dorn, edited by A. Daneshvari" in JAOS. Vol. 105. 1985. 751-752.

  • Komaroff, Linda. "Review of Mamluk and Post-Mamluk Metal Lamps, by Doris Behrens-Abouseif" in IJMES. Vol. 29: No. 3. 1997. 478-479.

  • Komaroff, Linda. "Review of Islamic Metalwork: The Nuhad es-Said Collection, by James W. Allan" in JAOS. Vol. 103. 1983. 775-776.

Komerska, Sally.

Kommer, Robert S.

Konig, Hans.

Konieczny, M.G.

  • Konieczny, M.G. Textiles of Baluchistan. London: 1979.


  • Konzett. Alte und Antike Kaukasische Teppiche. Graz: 1982.

  • Konzett. Alte und Antike Turkmenische Teppiche. Graz: 1983.


Koos, Greg.


Korolnik, Marcel.

  • Notes on the Korolniks

  • Korolnik is one of the most important collectors and scholars in the field of Moroccan carpet.

  • Korolnik, Marcel. " FIRE AND WATER, Rehamna Carpets, Recent Field Research in the Plains of Marrakesh. Hali 99, 1998. page 64. "The mainly Arab weaving tribes of the Plains of Marrakesh make a variety of pile and flatweaves. Lack of reliable information has meant that these rugs are generally misattributed, a situation that the author is seeking to remedy through his ongoing field studies in the area".

  • Marcel Korolnik
    Flatweaves and Carpets from the Haouz of Marrakech
    After a short look at the main tribes of the Haouz region the lecture seeks to prove the common background of the carpets by comparing their flatweaves. From there we follow the very different but unique design lines of the knotted pile carpets produced by three Arab tribes of the Haouz of Marrakech, the Ahmar, Bousbéa and the Rehamna. Icom textiles working group. Newsletter

  • Annette Korolnik-Andersch
    Identifying an Anti Atlas Weaving Tribe
    Only a few years ago carpets and weavings named "Beni Yaacoub" reached the market in remarkable numbers. Some of these pieces were quite old and all showed different character compared to most of the known tribes. Several times I traveled to the remote areas of the Central Anti Atlas in order to find out what Beni Yaacoub stands for. Apart from textile artefacts I found answers that help attribute some of the pieces, but at the same time raise new questions regarding others. Icom textiles working group. Newsletter

  • Korolnik advertising agency AG, BSW
    Main from route 12, 8034 Zurich

Koseoglu., Cengiz.

  • Cig, Kemal, Sabahattin Batur, and Cengiz Koseoglu. The Topkapi Saray Museum, Architeaure: The Harem and Other Buildings, trans. and ed. J. M. Rogers. Boston, 1988.

Kossow, Klaus-Dieter,

  • "Safavid Silk Fragments". Hamburg/Berlin ICOC7 1993.

Kosven, M. O.

  • Kosven, M.O. ed. et al.: Peoples of the Caucasus Vol.I ; Moscow: 1960.


Koum Kapi Rugs

Krausse, H. J.

  • Krausse, Hans-Jurgen. Fruhe Teppichkunst. 1990,

Kreiger, Fred.

  • Fred Kreiger is one of the leading West Coast rug collectors. Fred is a mainstay of the Textile Museum Associates in Los Angeles.

Kreiss, Paul.

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. and Stefen Sperl

  • Kreyenbroek, Philip G. and Stefen Sperl. The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview. Routledge/SOAS Series on Contemporary Politics and Culture in the Middle East, London. 1991

Kriss Jo,

  • Kriss Jo, Carpet specialist at Skinner’s Auctions, Bolton, Massachusetts.

Kroah, Don.

  • Don Kroah hosts a far right wing talk radio program on WAVA in the Washington DC area.

  • Kroah's show is vaguely Christian but primarily a front for the Republican party. Kroah has frequent guests such as journalist and right wing fringe activist Ken Timmerman.

Kryza-Gersch, F.

  • Butterweck, G., Kryza-Gersch, F., Neuber, E., Roth, F.O., Stanzer, W., & Trimbacher, P. Antique Anatolian Carpets


  • Also Quba, and Quebah.

  • Guide To Kuba Rugs



  • In Turki "Kuda connotes giving or taking a girl from another family in marriage. In a society which values kinship, relations established by marriage are significant and carry certain obligations." Alpamysh. Chapter 3 note 13.

Kuhnel, Ernst, also Kuehnel, Ernst,


  • Market center collection point for the rugs of a number of villages in the Kula area in Turkey.

  • Kula Carpets

  • Kula Kelle 1

Kulczycki, W.

  • Kulczycki, W. Beitrage Zur Kenntnis Der Orientalischen Gebetteppiche. 1914 (reprint: n.d.)

Kulřy, Hallvard K.

  • Kulřy, Hallvard K. Tibetan Rugs Bangkok 1982.

  • Kulřy, Hallvard K.: Fra Tempel til Hesterygg den Tibetanske Teppettradisjonen (Tibetan Rugs) ; Oslo: 1989.

  • Kulřy, H.K. Fra Tempel Til Hesterygg, Fra Tempel til Hesterygg den Tibetanske Teppettradisjonen (Tibetan Rugs). n.d.(l989).

Kunitzsch, Paul.

  • Kunitzsch, Paul. "Review of Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use, by Emilie Savage-Smith" in Journal for the History of Astronomy. Vol. 19. 1988. 278-280.

  • Kunitzsch, Paul. "Review of Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use, by Emilie Savage-Smith" in Der Islam. Vol. 64. 1987. 367-370.


Kuris, Azerbaijan/Russia

Kurtoglu, Mehmet.

  • In order to attract the modern quality-conscious Turkish customer, the Covered Bazaar has had to accept that it is competing with high-level international and local goods, be they woven, leather, ceramic or glass. Even in the realm of carpets, a significant change is occurring. Mehmet Kurtoglu is one of the pioneers of this change which he sees less as a revolution and more a natural evolution. He runs his eponymous carpet and kilim shop on Zeneciler Street as well as the Izmirli Balýkçý, a traditional fish restaurant in the Bazaar that has now opened an unrecognizably chic branch in Yeniköy. A Labyrinth of Contradictions The Covered Bazaar

Kurtz, John D.

Kustar rug.

  • The Kustar movement was an effort by the Russian Government to stimulate weaving by teaching weavers to weave from pattern books. These patterns encouraged the weavers to abandon traditional styles of pieces that were more commercially marketable. This resulted in rather predictable commercial pieces.

Kuznetzova, Marina.

  • Vjueva, Natalya. & Kuznetzova, Marina. "THE KREMLIN ICONOSTASIS". Hali 97, 1998. page 82. "One of the strangest works of Russian Orthodox art, the screen in the Crucifixion Chapel of the Moscow Kremlin is atypical in both technique and iconography. The icons it carries are mixed media images combining paint and textiles, using a range of imported luxury silks from both East and West."

Kybalova, L.

  • Kybalova, L. & Darbois, D. Carpets OF The Orient. 1969, Hamlyn.

J. Barry O'Connell Jr.

Copyright Barry O'Connell 2004 - 2006.
Last revised: March 13, 2009.

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Index to my Rug Notes

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