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Naein Rugs By Ehsan Afzalzadeh Naini Of Iran Rug Co.

Guide to the Best Carpet Producers and Dealers of Iran

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Old Main page - SW-Asia.com More Oriental Rug Notes by Barry O'Connell

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The Persian Rugs Search Engine

Labijar

  • Labijar is an important weaving area. The weavers include Saltuq Ersari, Taghan Ersari, and Hazara. Among the very best Afghan Turkmen Rugs are the old Saltuq Ersari Rugs from Labijar. Saltuq is Eastern Azeri for Seljuk.

Lac

Laden, Osama Bin.

Lahore

Lakai

  • An Uzbek tribe noted for their embroidery.

  • "One tribe, the Lakai, are of particular interest here. Living in the mountains to the east of Bukhara, they were a fiercely independent people who were apparently never converted to Islam, isolating themselves from the main body of the Uzbeks and retaining the steppe tradition of the mounted warrior-herdsman long after other tribes had abandoned this lifestyle for peaceful shepherding and farming. The freedom of their way of life is reflected in their art and culture." http://www.30suzani.com/ (Michael Franses)

Lake, Anthony "Tony".

Lamb, Harold.

  • Lamb was born in New York City in 1892 and attended Columbia University. bio

  • Spy for the US (OSS ?) in W.W.II bio

  • "Lamb spoke many languages--French, Latin, ancient Persian, some Arabic, a smattering of Turkish, and a bit of Manchu-Tartar and medieval Ukrainian. (An additional source lists him as fluent in Chinese without mentioning which dialect.) He traveled throughout Asia, visiting most of the places he wrote about, and during World War II was on covert assignment overseas for the U.S. government." bio

  • My first real interest in Central Asia was as a young lad when I read Lamb's Tamerlane. I remember a burning desire to see Samarkand.

Lamberan

L'Art Copte

  • L'Art Copte. Petit Palais, 1964, French text.

Lamm, C.J.

  • Lamm, C.J. Carpet Fragments, The Marby Rug and Some Fragments of Carpets. Nationalmuseums Skrskftser. NS 7, 1985,

  • Lamm, Carl Johan. Mittelalterliche Gläser und Steinschnittarbeiten aus dem Nahen Osten. Forschungen zur islamischen Kunst; 5. Berlin: Verlag Dietrich Reimer/Ernst Vohsen, 1930.

  • Lamm, Carl Johan. "Some Mamluk Embroideries" in Ars Islamica. Vol. 4. 1937. 65-76.

  • Lamm, Carl Johan. "The Miniatures: Their Origin and Style" in Uppsala Universitets Årsskrift. Vol. 5. 1946. 34-39, pls. 1-24.

  • Lamm, Carl Johan. Cotton in Mediaeval Textiles of the Near East. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1937.

  • Lamm, Carl Johan. "A Falconer's Kettledrum of Mameluke Origin in Livrustkammaren" in Livrustkammaren: Journal of the Royal Armoury, Stockholm. Vol. 6 No. 5-6. 1953. 80-94.

Lanari, G.

  • Lanari, G. Tappeti Turchi Di Villaggio. 1994,

Landreau, Anthony N.

Lane, Maggie.

  • Lane, Maggie. Chinese Rugs Designed for Needlepoint. 1975.

Lane, Arthur.

  • Lane, Arthur. "Medieval Finds at Al Mina in North Syria" in Archaeologia. Vol. (2nd ser., 38) 87. 1938. 19-78.

  • Lane, Arthur. Later Islamic Pottery: Persia, Syria, Egypt, Turkey. London: Faber and Faber, 1957. Second edition, 1971.

Lane-Poole, Stanley.

  • Lane-Poole, Stanley. The Art of the Saracens in Egypt. London: Chapman and Hall, 1886.

Langlands, Irene.

  • Langlands, I. & Langlands, R. Rare Oriental Rugs. 1990.

  • Langlands, I. and Langlands, R. Rare Oriental Rugs 1991. Tribal Tradition. 1991,

  • Langlands, R. & Langlands, I. Rare Oriental Rugs 1993. "Beasts, Birds, Blossums & Botehs" 1993, Khamseh saddle cover;

  • Langlands, R. & Langlands, I. Rare Oriental Rugs 1995. Colour And Dyeing. 1995,

  • Langlands, Ross and Irene: Rare Oriental Rugs. 1995,

  • Langlands, Ross: Rare Oriental Rugs 1990. 19th Century Persian Medallion Carpets. Sydney: 1990.

Langlands, Ross

  • Langlands, I. & Langlands, R. Rare Oriental Rugs. 1990.

  • Langlands, I. and Langlands, R. Rare Oriental Rugs 1991. Tribal Tradition. 1991,

  • Langlands, R. & Langlands, I. Rare Oriental Rugs 1993. "Beasts, Birds, Blossums & Botehs" 1993, Khamseh saddle cover;

  • Langlands, R. & Langlands, I. Rare Oriental Rugs 1995. Colour And Dyeing. 1995,

  • Langlands, Ross and Irene: Rare Oriental Rugs. 1995,

  • Langlands, Ross: Rare Oriental Rugs 1990. 19th Century Persian Medallion Carpets. Sydney: 1990.

Langton, Mary Beach.

  • Langton, M.B. How To Know Oriental Rugs. 1916 (1904 copyright),

  • Langton, Mary Beach. How to Know Oriental Rugs ; NY: 1904.

Lanier, M.B.

  • Lanier, M.B. English And Oriental Carpets at Williamsburg. 1975,

Lansdale, Edward Geary

  • Edward Geary Lansdale, Brigadier General USAF Retired

  • Lansdale served in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in World War II and went on to work in the Central Intelligence Agency.

  • Organized a successful counterinsurgency campaign in the Philippines in the early 1950s against the communist Huk rebellion.

  • Coresponded with Sheila Payne.

  • THE SECRET WAR AGAINST HANOI

Lapidus, Ira M.

Larsson, Lennart.

  • Larsson, Lennart. Carpets from China, Xianjiang and Tibet. Boston: 1989.

Laszlo, E.

  • Laszlo, E. Flamand Es Francia Karpitok Gyarorszagon. 1980, Corvina,

Latham, J. D.

  • Latham, J. D. "Review of Islam and the Trade of Asia: A Colloquium, edited by D. S. Richards" in BSOAS. Vol. 35. 1972. 367-370.

Lattimore, Owen.

Laver Kirman

Lavian, Joseph.

Lawrence, Thomas Edward, "T. E."

  • British sodomite and agent provocateur Thomas Edward "T. E." Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)

  • Lawrence, T. E. (Thomas Edward), 1888-1935. Title Seven pillars of wisdom, a triumph. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & company, Inc., 1935.

Laz The Anatolian Laz

Lederman, A.J.

  • Lederman, A.J., Walker, D. & Wolf, M. A Skein Through Time. 1996,

Ledes, Allison Eckardt.

  • Ledes, Allison Eckardt. "Egyptian Carpets (Beyond the Pyramids: Geometry and Design in the Carpets of Egypt, 1450-1750, at the Textile Museum in Washington, D.C.)" in The Magazine Antiques. Vol. 140. July 1991. 30.

Lee, Yu-Kuan.

  • Lee, Yu-Kuan. Art Rugs from Silk Route and Great Wall Areas. Tokyo: 1980.

Lefevre & Partners.

  • Lefevre and Partners: Central Asian Carpets ; London: 1976.

  • Lefevre and Partners: The Persian Carpet ; London: 1977.

  • Lefevre & Partners: Central Asian Carpets, Supplement One ; London: 1977.

  • Lefevre and Partners: The Sarre Mamluk and Twelve Other Classical Rugs from the Same Private Collection ; London: 1980.

  • Lefevre and Partners: Turkish Carpets from the 16th to 19th Century ; London: 1977.

Lefevre, Jean.

Legge, Christopher.

Legner, Anton.

  • Legner, Anton. "Islamische keramik in Resafa" in Annales archéologiques de Syrie. Vol. 14. 1964. 98-107.

Leitch, Gordon B.

  • Leitch, G.B. Chinese Rugs. 1928, Dodd Mead,

  • Leitch, Gordon B. Chinese Rugs. New York: Tudor Publishing Co., 1928.

Leix, Alfred.

  • Leix, Alfred. Turkestan and its Textile Crafts. Basingstoke: 1974.

Lepanto, Battle of 1571

  • On Oct. 7, 1571, John of Austria commander of the Holy League led his ships into battle off the coast of Lepanto, Greece in the Gulf of Patras.

  • The Holy League was Spain, Venice, and the Papal States of Italy.

  • The set back was temporary.

Lerch, M.

  • Lerch, M. Alte Und Antike Orientalische Knupfkunst. 1991,

Lesghi Star

  • The Lesghi Star pattern is originally attributed to Daghestan but during the Russian commercial period was made throughout the Caucasus.

  • Late Period Lesghi Star Kazak Rug from Belgium

Lessing, Julius.

  • Lessing, Julius. Ancient Oriental Carpet Patterns. London: 1879.

Levi, Alberto.

Lewinsky, Monica

Lewis, Bernard.

Lewis, F.

  • Lewis, F. Oriental Rugs and Textiles, The Perez Collection. Leigh-on-Sea: 1953.

Lewis, G. Griffin.

  • Lewis, G. Griffin. The Practical Book of Oriental Rugs. Philadelphia: 1920.

Lewis, S.D.

  • Lewis, S.D. Early Coptic Textiles. 1969,

Liberty, USS

  • In 1967 the nation of Israel became convinced that an American war ship in International waters was spying on Israel. Israel ordered it's Airforce and Navy to commit three attacks on the US vessel. The Israelis used bomb, machinegun, and napalm attacks. The attacks beging at 2:00 in the afternoon June 8, 1967 and were conducted despite the clearly visible American flags on the ship. In between the first and second bombing attacks a huge American flag was displayed to let the Israelis know it was a US vessel. On the second attack the Israelis attacked that flag draped ship with missiles and napalm. In the third attack Israeli gunboats fired at the survivors. 34 American sailors died in those 3 attacks. Loftus & Aarons. Secret War page 263 to 264

  • USS LIBERTY Memorial

  • The USS Liberty The Israeli version

  • The Assault on the USS Liberty Still Covered Up After 26 years

Lichnowsky, Furstin Machthilde

Lilihan

  • Thick attractive rugs made by Armenians in Iran. These rugs are related to Sarouk rugs but are made with sturdy single wefted construction.

  • How Armenians got to Lilihan
    In the sixteenth century Persia was a divided region between various powers. For much of  the 16th the Ottoman empire controlled Persia either militarily or as a vassal state and the eastern border fluctuated by the wars with the Timurids, Uzbeks, Turkmen, and Mughals. Finally in the closing years of the century Abbas Safavi called Abbas the Great finally slipped the bounds of Turkish control and established what we know as modern Persia. One of the keys to his foreign and domestic policy involved moving ethic groups around like Chess pieces on a board. The Safavi were a Turkmen IL when they started. This led to continuing political instability with the aymaqs (tribes) acting as independent nation states to the detriment of the Safavi monarchy. The way Abbas solved this problem was a 3 fold effort.

    A.  Break up the most troublesome aymaqs. The Afshar who were a particularly troublesome aymaq were spilt up into many areas including many who were sent to Kerman.

    B. Replace the problematic Turkomen with troops drawn primarily from groups loyal to the Monarchy rather than a tribe, Troops were drawn from the Caucasus, and the Kurds who were loyal and open to using muskets.

    C, Pay for the effort by moving the Armenians into the interior of the country and helping them in business. The classical carpets of Isphahan were Armenian and the leading traders were Armenian. One innovation was grants to Armenian Merchants that in effect made them partners with the crown.

Lindahl, David

  • Lindahl, David and T. Knorr: "Uzbek", The Textiles and Life of the Nomadic and Sedentary Uzbek Tribes of Central Asia.

PETER LINDEN

  • Ireland's leading dealer in Old & Antique rugs, carpets, runners, kilims, tribal weavings, Uzbec Suzanis and period European tapestries. Also a leading dealer within the DOBAG project with substantial stock at any time. Finally we do a number of other modern rugs like Zollanvari Gabbehs, Egyptian "Zieglers" and Khan Mohamadi Afghan rugs from Peshawar, Pakistan.

  • All our pieces must have stable dyes, preferably all natural. We avoid big production lines and excessively "antique washed" pieces. No painted rugs, rugs with cut-and-shut reductions, really only in mint condition if we can help it.

  • Finally we do in-house washing and restoration.

Links

Lion

Lipton, Mimi:

  • Lipton, Mimi. The Tiger Rugs of Tibet. London: 1988.

Liske, Bill.

  • Understanding Tibetan Rugs" Denver: ACOR4 Focus Session, 1998.

Literacy Corps

  • Iranian program under M.R. Pahlavi circa 1964 similar to US Peace Corp but for domestic use. the Corp was partly to educate his people and partially to erase the Turkic elements of Iranian culture. This is part of the White Revolution.

Livai, Danny and Sabrina

Löfgren, Oscar.

  • Löfgren, Oscar. "Ambrosian Fragments of an Illuminated Manuscript Containing the Zoology of al-Gahiz" in Uppsala Universitets Årsskrift. Vol. 5. 1946. 1-33.

Long, Joan.

  • "Turkoman Roundtable", Chicago: Panelist ACOR II, 1996

Long, Ned.

Longenecker, Martha

  • Longenecker, Martha ed. Folk Art in the Soviet Union. San Diego: 1989.

Lorentz, H.A.

  • Lorentz, H.A. A View of Chinese Rugs, from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Century. London: 1972.

Lori Pambak

Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Lotto Lorenzo

Lotto Rugs

Louca, Claire Cecile.

  • Louca, Claire Cecile. "Étoffes mamlukes du Musée des Tissus de Lyon" in CIETA Bulletin. Vol. 72. 1994. 20-33.

  • Louca, Claire Cecile. "Some Reflections on Mamluk Silks" Master's thesis, American University in Cairo, 1989.

Loveless, Clive.

  • Loveless is one of Great Brittian's more interesting dealers and a frequent face in Hali.

  • Cohen, S., Black, D., Loveless, C.The Unappreciated Dhurrie, David Black Oriental Rugs, London, 1982

Lowry, Glenn D.

  • Glenn D. Lowry director of New York City's Museum of Modern Art.

  • Books:

    • Williamstown, MA. Sterling and Francine Clark Institute. Text by Milo Cleveland Beach with contributions by Stuart Cary Welch and Glenn D. Lowry. The Grand Mogul, Imperial Painting in India, 1600 - 1660. exhibition dates: Sept. 25 - Nov. 3, 1978. 1978

    • Wiencek, Henry and Lowry, Glenn D. with Heller, Amanda. Storm Across Asia HBJ Press 1980.

    • Henry Wiencek, Glenn D. Lowry, with Amanda Heller ; preface by W.M. Thackston, Jr. Storm across Asia Cassell, 1980.

    • Shen Fu , Glenn D. Lowry and Ann Yonemura From Concept To Context: Approaches to Asian and Islamic Calligraphy Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, Freer Gallery,1986

    • Brand, Michael & Lowry, Glenn D. AKBAR'S INDIA: Art from the Mughal City of Victory. New York, The Asia Society Galleries, (1986).

    • Michael Brand and Glenn D. Lowry. Fatehpur-Sikri. Bombay: Marg Publications, 1987.

    • Lowry, Glenn D.; Yonemura, Ann and Beach, Milo C. Fu, Shen. The Inaugural Gift: Asian Art in the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Smithsonian Institution, 1987

    • Lowery, Glenn D. and Nemazee Susan. A Jeweler's Eye. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988.

    • Lowery, Glenn D. An Annotated and Illustrated Checklist of the Vever Collection, a Jeweler's Eye : Islamic Arts of the Book from the Vever Collection. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press,

    • Lowery, Glenn D. and Lentz, Glenn D. Timur and the Princely Vision. Washington DC: Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Smithsonian Institution, University of Washington Press, 1989.

    • Findly, Ellison Banks. Intro. by Glenn D. Lowry. Foreword by Richard S. Teitz. From the Courts of India: Indian Miniatures in the Collection of the Worcester Art Museum. Worcester Art Museum, 80 pp., illus.

    • Galassi, Peter & Susan Kismaric (eds.). Essays by William Safire and Peter Galassi. Foreword by Glenn D. Lowry Pictures of the Times. A Century of Photography from The New York Times Museum of Modern Art New York, 1997.

  • Articles:

  • Miscellaneous:

Lur

  • Lur is a name for the earliest known inhabitants of the Zagros mountain in Iran. For at least 5500 years the Luri have lived in that area. The have not been a politically powerful tribe in recent memory and are considered to be of a lower status than their neighbors such as the Qashqai or the Bakhtiyari.

  • Luri is also a Persian language of which Bakhtiyari is a dialect.

  • Luri is the plural of Lur

  • Luristan or Lurestan is the land of the Luri

  • Luri Bedding Bag

  • Luri flatweave bag

  • Luri Palas

  • Kuhgiluyeh is a Lur confederation that borders the Qashqai. It has two main component tribes.

    • Boir Ahmad

    • Mamasanni

  • The Bakhtiyari were a major Luri confederation that gained it's power by selling it's sole to the British.

    • Often used as an extension of British foreign policy and oil interests. The Bakhtiyari were long standing enemies of the Qashqai as well as the Dashtistani, the Tangistani, and the Dashti tribes of the Persian Gulf Coast. Beck, Lois. The Qashqai of Iran, pages 32 and 33.

Lutf Ali Khan

J. Barry O'Connell Jr.

Copyright Barry O'Connell 2004 - 2006.
Last revised: March 13, 2009.

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