Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

Barry O'Connell's Oriental and Persian Rug Notes

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MacDill Air Force Base

  • MacDill Air Force Base is in Tampa, Fla.

  • Location of the United States Central Command.

MacDonald, Brian W.

Mackie, Louise W.

MacLean, A.

  • MacLean, A. & Blair, D. Catalogue of Oriental Rugs in the Collection of James F. Ballard. 1924, John Heron Art Institute.



  • A Madrassah is an Islamic religious school.




  • The sunset or evening prayers.



  • A village in Kerman which produces rugs.

  • Eiland mentions that cochineal was the primary red used in Mahan rugs. 83 Afshar

  • "Mahan, another center of interest, is located 35km. south of Kerman. It is the hometown of Shah Nematollah Vali, a Sufi poet and founder of a Mohammaden sect of the same name." Cyrus Tours: Kerman

Mahani, Akbar.

Mahaz-i-Milli Islami

  • AKA National Islamic Front.

  • A Moderate, pro democratic, religiously moderate resistance party headed by Pir Syed Ahmed Gaillani. The party was powerful at the beginning of the Russian war but slipped in power when it was seen as ineffective.


  • Literally the one who leads by righteousness. In Shia doctrine the Mahdi will be the one who leads them in the end times. The Mahdi will be free of both sin and error and will lead the world by uniting and ruling it under the tenets of Shia Islam. Ismail Safavi was one of many who declared himself the Mahdi.

Mahir, Su`ad.

  • Mahir, Su`ad. "Khazaf al-Raqqah" in BFACU. Vol. 16. 1954. 109-134.

Mahmud, `Isam `Arafah.

  • Mahmud, `Isam `Arafah. "Tanawwu` Asalib al-Takrar al-Zukhrufi bi-al-Takwinat al-Handasiyah al-Jidariyah bi-Masajid al-Qahirah fi `Asr al-Mamalik al-Bahriyah (648-784 H./1250-1382 M.)" in al-Majallah al-`Arabiyah lil-`Ulum al-Insaniyah. Vol. 10: No. 40. 1992. 118-162.

Mahmud Muzahhib

  • Mahmud Muzahhib is also know as Shaykhzadeh or Shaykhzadeh Mahmud. Kuhnel in La Miniature En Orient attributed a painting to Shaykhzadeh Mahmud in the 1920s and about 70 years later Bahari argues the same point quite convincingly (Bahari, Bihzad page )

  • Mahmud Muzahhib. Titley, Persian Miniature Painting Pl. 40 page 89.

  • Plate 70b Shaykhzadeh Mahmud

Mahri, Sasan K.

Mahsud, Ahmed Shah.

  • Ahmed Shah Mahsuud was murdered by Taliban, Osama Bin Laden, and the al-Qaeda network September 9, 2001.

  • Taliban felt it important to eliminate Mahsud before the attached the United States.

  • Yasser al-Siri provided the documentation for the men who murdered Ahmed Shah Mahsud

Mailey, Jean.

Maison Du Tapis D'Orient,

Maksimov, V.

  • Maksimov, V. & Sorokin, E., ed. Kirghiz OIimoloru / Kirgizskii Uzor / The Kirghiz Pattern. 1986.

  • Maksimov, V. and Y. Sorokin: The Kirghiz Pattern. Frunze: 1986.

A & R Maktabi,

Maktab al-Khidimat

  • Bin Laden founded Maktab al-Khidimat or MAK to funnel aid to the fighters. MAK was either a front or in cooperation with the CIA, ISI, and Saudi Intelligence.

Mohamed Maktabi,

  • Iwan Maktabi
    Mlle Zeina & Mr. Mohamed Maktabi
    Verdun, Face Statue Rachid Karamé
    Tel: (01) 345 813, 739 084 Fax : (01) 345 813

Mona Maktabi,

George Malacinski,

Malakouti Workshop

Malashenko, Alexei.


  • Malayer or Malayer refers to a large rug producing region south of Hamadan in Hamadan province. There is a wide variety of different patterns. They are all single wefted and despite low knot counts wear well because of thick construction of very good wool.

  • What is a Malayer Rug? - 02/23/2000


  • A Malder is a stock or herd owner in Afghanistan. These nomads make distinctive woven items that are often called Kutchi.

Malik, Ayyub.

  • Malik, Ayyub. "Review of The Art and Architecture of Islam, 1250-1800, by Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom" in The Muslim World Book Review. Vol. 16: No. 2. 1996. 53-55.


  • A school of law established by Malik in Medina in the 8th century. This school was noted for it's conservatism and severity. It was recognized as orthodox by Sunni Muslims and was most significant in Northwest Africa and Spain

Mallary III, R. Dewitt

Mallett, Marla.

Maltzahn Detlef and Christa

  • The Maltzahn's run Rippon Boswell Auction House in Wiesbaden Germany.

  • (Rippon-Boswell) EH Still Casts Long Shadows, An interview, the true story of the odyssey of Rippon-Boswell, auctioneers, Stuttgart, Germany. Oriental Rug Review, #125, XVI

Mamedov, Aliaga.

  • Aliaga Mamedov, Ph. D. (History), Head of the Department for Applied Ethnology at the Azerbaijani Academy of Sciences’ Institute for Archeology and Ethnography.


Mamluk or Mameluke

  • A word for slave that refers to slaves of non-Islamic origin and is usually reserved for soldiers. In the Mameluke Sultanate of Egypt and Syria (1250 to 1517) the slave army gained control and established a dynasty.

Mamluk Carpets

Mandal William Marx.

Mangu Qan


Manilow, Lewis

  • Lewis and Susan Manilow Gift to the Art Institute ...

  • "17th C. West Anatolian Coupled-Column Prayer Rug Probably Oushak From the Lewis Manilow Collection" The Collection of Susan and Lewis Manilow: Sotheby's New York, April 7th 1992, lot 10

  • Lewis Manilow is a trustee of the Art Institute of Chicago, a founding trustee of the Museum of Contemporary Art and its president from 1976 to 1981. He is also honorary president of the Goodman Theatre and the prime mover behind the North Loop Theater District in Chicago. In honor of these efforts a section of Chicago's Loop was named Lewis Manilow Place, and the Chicago Tribune selected him as one of Arts and Entertainment Chicagoans of the Year for 1997. He was awarded a Doctor of Humane Letters degree by Governors State University on June 1, 1996. Mr. Manilow has been a senior partner in a large Chicago law firm, chairman of the board of an international telecommunications company, and a real estate developer. http://webserve.govst.edu/sculpture/history.html

Mann, Robert.

  • Bob Mann is a textile restorer and conservator based in Denver, CO.

  • "Rug Construction and Deconstruction", Chicago: ACOR II, 1996

  • "Restoration From The Owner's Viewpoint", Chicago: Panelist ACOR II, 1996

  • "To Restore Or Not To Restore?" Santa Monica: ACOR 3, 1996.

  • "The Basics of Warp & Weft" Santa Monica: ACOR 3, 1996.

  • "Possibilities of Restoration" Denver: ACOR4 Focus Session, 1998.

  • Oriental Rug Restoration: To Restore or Not

Mannam Carpets

Manning James D.

Mansel, Philip.

  • Mansel, Philip. Constantinople : City of the World's Desire1453-1924.St Martins Press, 1996.

  • Philip Mansel's book is a five-hundred-year history of Constantinople (now Istanbul) which attempts to convey the rich history of this one-time capital city and describe the defining characteristics which point toward its potential to return to global grandeur. The book is sizable in scope and weight: there's a wealth of details and illustrations. Mansel addresses the development of Constantinople into an Islamic city, covering the five-century dynasty of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Turks conquered the Byzantine Empire in 1453, converting the city from the capital of Eastern Orthodox Christianity to the home of sultans, eunuchs, and janizaries. They created a city of mosques and minarets that served as the Ottoman capital until the end of World War I. Mansel's attention falls particularly on the palaces and the political history of the capital, as well as the great architectural works which still constitute the city's skyline. This is a highly readable history of the great city on the Bosporus, marked by keen perceptions of art and palace life. Publisher.

  • Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453-1924 by Philip Mansel review John Murray. What really happened when the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire left Istanbul on November 17, 1922? Cornucopia, Issue No: 9


Marechal, James K.,

Marchese, R.

  • Marchese, R., Achepohl, K, & Subler, C. A. Family Holdings, Turkish Nomadic Flatweaves. 1991.

Marcuson Alan.

Marcz, Annie.

Mar`i, Imtithal Mahmud.

  • Mar`i, Imtithal Mahmud. "al-Akhshab wa-Dawruha fi Bina' wa-Zakhrafat al-`Ama'ir al-Mamlukiyah fi Misr" in Dirasat Athariyah Islamiyah. Vol. 5. 1995. 65-86.

  • Mar`i, Imtithal Mahmud. "Adawat al-Tajmil wa-Mawadduhu Wasalatha bi-al-Tibb fi al-`Asr al-Mamluki" in Dirasat Athariyah Islamiyah. Vol. 4. 1991. 37-50.

Markarian, Krikor

  • New York Rug dealer. Operates Krikor Markarian Inc,

Markarian, Richard

Markel, Stephen.

  • Stephen Markel Curator Indian and Southeast Asian Art Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

  • Markel, Stephen A Royal Collection: Central Javanese Copper- Alloy Sculptures in the Museum Radya Pustaka, Surakarta. Orientations. DEC 91

  • The World of Jade. Ed. Stephen Markel. Essays on the art of carved jade by respected art historians 
    Italian, Islamic Mughal, Chinese, South American and Maori jades.

  • Pleasure Gardens of the Mind : Indian Paintings from the Jane Greenough Green Collection/Pratapaditya pal, Stephen Markel and Janice Leoshko. 1993

Markovich, Pat.

  • Pat is a prominent West Coast war rug collector and member of the San Francisco Bay Area Rug Society.

  • Pat Markovich

Marlowe, Christopher.

  • Christopher Marlowe (later called "lord" Byron) a British opium user and poet. Paksoy, Crimean Tatars

  • Incorrectectly identified Timur Barlas a Chagatai Turk as a Tartar to the western world. Paksoy, Crimean Tatars

Marquand, Dennis.

Marteau, Georges,

  • Marteau, Georges, and Vever, Henri, Miniatures Persanes (Exposées au Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Juin-Octobre 1921), (Paris: 1913).

Martin, F. R.,

  • Martin, F. R., and Arnold, Sir Thomas W., The Nizami Ms. Illuminated by Bihzad, Mirak and Qasim Ali (Written 1495 for Sultan Ali Mirza Barlas, Ruler of Samarquand) n the British Museum (Or. 6810), (Vienna: 1926).

  • Anet, Claude. "Dr. F. R. Martin and Oriental Painting, 'Le traité des automates'" in Burlington Magazine. Vol. 23. 1913. 49-50.

  • Creswell, K. A. C. "Dr. F. R. Martin's M.S. 'Treatise on Automata'" in The Year Book of Oriental Art and Culture, 1924-1925. Waley, Arthur (edited by). Vol. 1.
    London: Ernest Benn, Limited, 1925. 33-40.

  • Martin, F.R.
    1908 A History of Oriental Carpets before 1800, Vienna.

  • Sarre, F. & F. R. Martin.
    1912 Die Ausstellung von Meisterwerken Muhammedanischer Kunst in Munich 1910, F. Bruckmann, Munich.

Martin, Gail

Marzuq, Muhammad

  • Marzuq, Muhammad `Abd al-`Aziz. History of Textile Industry in Alexandria, 331 BC--1517 AD.. [Alexandria]: Alexandria University Press, 1955.

  • Marzuq, Muhammad `Abd al-`Aziz. "Three Signed Specimens of Mamluk Pottery from Alexandria" in Ars Orientalis. Vol. 2. 1957. 497-501.

  • Marzuq, Muhammad `Abd al-`Aziz. "The Tiraz Institutions in Mediaeval Egypt" in Studies in Islamic Art and Architecture in Honor of Professor K. A. C. Creswell. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1965. 157-162.

  • Marzuq, Muhammad `Abd al-`Aziz. "Egyptian Sgraffito Ware Excavated at Kom-Ed-Dikka in Alexandria" in Majallat Kulliyat al-Adab, Jami`at al-Iskandariyah. Vol. 13. 1959. 3-24.


  • Mashad is the major city of Persian Khorasan.

  • Reyy was the major city of Persian Khorasan until it was destroyed by Cingis Qan. Then Herat was the major city and in the Safavid period Herat was taken so many time by the Shaybanid Uzbeks that Mashad became the dominant city of the Persian part of Khorasan.

  • Burial place of a King of Egypt, Harron-Al-Rashid, the Abbasi Caliph was buried in 773 AD in a village called Sanabad in what is now Mashad.

  • The Shia martyr Imam Reza was poisoned by the order of Mamoon in 783 AD and was also buried in Sanabad near the grave of Harron-Al-Rashid.

  • The tomb and Mosque of the Imam Reza are the most venerated shrine in Iran and is visited by 12 million pilgrims a year.

  • Hamze Mirza besieged Mashad in 1848.


  • The Mashwanni are a rather mysterious tribe in that it is very difficult to trace their origin. Very importantly they are not mentioned in the Babur-Nama. Since the Emperor Babur has left us a detailed list of all tribes in the area it is safe to say they were not in the area in 1500. The oldest reference that I can find is in "The Pathans" by Olaf Caroe. He places the Mushwanni in what is now the NWFP of Pakistan in 1824. Curiously he refers to them as a Hamsaya tribe of the Yusufzais of Kalabahat. Hamsaya in this context would refer to a tribe under the protection and rule of another tribe the significant part is that they are always referred to as if they were separate from the Pashtun people but still aligned with them. By 1844 the Mashwanni according to Caroe were allies of the Durrani Pashtuns and were militantly war like. In the 1880 a large group of Mashwanni moved to the Adraskand valley as part of Amir Abdurrahmand's policy of moving Pashtuns to the borders to solidify his gains. I suspect that the lands were given as payment to the Mashwanni for military service.


Maskhadov, Aslan.

Maslow, Jonathan.

  • Maslow, Jonathan. Sacred Horses, The Memories of a Turkman Cowboy. NY: 1994.

Mason, Robert B.

  • Mason, Robert B. "Petrography of Islamic Pottery from Fustat" in JARCE. Vol. 27. 1990. 165-184.

Maspero, Jean

  • Maspero, Jean. "Deux vases de bronze arabes du XVe siècle" in BIFAO. Vol. 7. 1910. 173-175.

Massignon, Louis.

  • Massignon, Louis. "Six plats de bronze de style Mamelouk" in BIFAO. Vol. 10. 1912. 79-88.

Mast, Ted.

  • Mast, Ted Ancient Faith, An Exhibition of Rustic Prayer Rugs. Bryn Athyn Pa.: 1993.

Mateeva, Stella.

Mathews, Thomas F.

Matthee, Rudi,

Mauri Afghans

  • Mauri or Mori

  • Discussion:

  • MAURI AFGHAN??? - RAY BASSI 13:43:32 5/19/98 (1)

    • Re: MAURI AFGHAN??? - J. Barry O'Connell Jr. 15:20:05 5/19/98 (0)

  • Mauri Turkmen

    • A rug by the Mauri Tekke Turkmen who moved from Merv to Herat after 1921. It is also used in the trade to refer to non Tekke copies.

    Maxwell, Robert.

    May, C. J.

    • May, C. J. Delabere. How to Identify Persian Rugs and Other Oriental Rugs. NY: (1952).

    May, Timothy M.

    Mayer, L. A.

    • Leo Arie (or Aryeh) Mayer

    • Prof. Leo Aryeh Mayer, rector of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and noted professor and scholar of Islamic art and architecture. ???? ????

    • Mayer, L. A. "Three Heraldic Bronzes from Palermo" in Ars Islamica. Vol. 3: No. 2. 1936. 182-186.

    • Mayer, L. A. "Saracenic Arms and Armor" in Ars Islamica. Vol. 10. 1943. 1-12.

    • Mayer, L. A. Islamic Armourers and Their Works. Geneva: Albert Kundig, 1962.

    • Mayer, L. A. "Mamluk Playing Cards" in BIFAO. Vol. 38. 1939. 113-127.

    • Mayer, L. A. Islamic Woodcarvers and Their Works. Geneva: Albert Kundig, 1958.

    • Mayer, L. A. Islamic Metalworkers and Their Works. Geneva: Albert Kundig, 1959.

    • Mayer, L. A. Mamluk Playing Cards. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1971.

    • Mayer, L. A. Islamic Astrolabists and Their Works. Geneva: Albert Kundig, 1956.

    • Mayer, L. A. "Huit objets inédits à blasons Mamluks en Grèce et en Turquie" in Mélanges Maspero. Vol. 3: Orient islamique. MIFAO; 68. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale, 1940. 97-104.

    • Mayer, L. A. "A Hitherto Unknown Damascene Artist" in Ars Islamica. Vol. 9. 1942. 168.

    • Mayer, L. A. "A Dish of Shadbak the Atabak" in QDAP. Vol. 8. 1939. 62-63.

    • Mayer, L. A. "A Dish of Mamay as-Saqi" in Berytus. Vol. 2. 1935. 40-41.

    • The L.A. Mayer Museum was founded by the late Mrs. Vera Bryce Salomons, realizing her long-standing idea of giving expression to the impressive artistic achievements of Israel's Muslim neighbors. Mrs. Salomons dedicated the Museum to her friend and teacher, Prof. Leo Arie Mayer. Many scholars of international renown took part in the establishment of the Museum, attracted to both its research activities and to the challenge of bridging the gap between the two cultures.
      The Museum was opened to the public in 1974. L.A. Mayer Museum for Islamic Art

    Mayeri, Leon.

    • Leon runs Persian Mercantile Berkeley California. He is a top West Coast dealer of primarily new carpets. He is a frequent contributor on RugNotes and has been sharing his sage wisdom on the Internet for longer than any dealer I can call to mind.

    • List of Honest Rug & Carpet Dealers In The U.S.


    • A village in Kerman which produces rugs.

    Mazar -i- Sharif

    • Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan

    • The dominant city in Afghan Turkistan. It is in what was once Bactria. It is near Balkh which is one of the oldest cities in the world. Balkh was the dominant city in the region until destroyed by the Mongols.

    • Was the seat of an Uzbek Khanate until it was taken over by the Pashtuns in the late 19th century. It regained it's independence in the 1980s under Pasha Abdul Rashid Dostum. It fell to Taliban in the late 1990s. As I write this Dostum is fighting to free Mazar again. 10/26/2001

    McCann, J. Kelly.

    • J. Kelly McCann is the president of Crucible Security Specialists in Fredericksburg. McCann is a former special-operations special missions officer. Expert on Terrorism.

    McChesney, Robert,

    McCormick, Tom.

    • "Ethnographic Rugs", Chicago: ACOR II, 1996

    McCracken, Ursala.

    • Ursala McCracken is the Director of the Textile Museum. A tough woman who is driven to make the TM a success even if it means making changes. She is nimbly trying to broaden the Museum's base while not entirely abandoning Oriental Carpets.

    McCullough, Abigail.

    • McCullough, Abigail. Assistant Editor, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

    • Formerly Editorial Assistant, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

    McDowell, J. Allgrove

    • McDowell, J. Allgrove, 1989 Textiles, in The Arts of Persia, ed. R.W. Ferrier. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.

    McGuiness, Stephen.

    McKissick, Mike.

    McMullan, Joseph V.

    McMullan, Joseph V. Award

    McWilliams, Mary Anderson

    • McWilliams, Mary Anderson Allegories Unveiled: European Sources for a Safavid Velvet, Textiles and Trade, Textile Society of America, Washington, pp.136-147. 1990

    • Prisoner Imagery in Safavid Textiles, The Textile Museum Journal 1987, v.26, pp.5-23. 1988


    • Mehriban is an important production center for all size rugs, carpets and runners. Situated in between Sarouk and Hamadan they are like a merger of the two. The style tends towards the floral spray American Sarouk but the weave is single wefted like the Hamadan district. Mehriban rugs are genneraly stury hard wearing rugs with good wool and traditional designs.

    • Guide to Mehriban Rugs and Carpets

    Mehta, R.J.

    • Mehta, R.J. Masterpieces of Indian Textiles. 1994

    • Mehta, Rustan J., Masterpieces of Indo-Islamic Architecture, (Bombay: 1976).


    • Directly west of Kabul. Meidansahr is the capital of the province of Wardak.


    Meinecke, Michael

    • Meinecke, Michael. "Die mamlukischen Fayencemosaikdekorationen: Eine Werkstätte aus Tabriz in Kairo (1330-1350)" in Kunst des Orients. Vol. 11. 1976-1977. 85-144.

    • Meinecke, Michael. "Review of Beiträge zur Kunstgeschichte Asiens in Memoriam Ernst Diez, edited by Oktay Aslanapa; and Studies in Islamic Art and Architecture in Honour of Professor K. A. C. Creswell" in Der Islam. Vol. 45. 1969. 180-192.

    • Meinecke, Michael. "Mamlukische Marmordekorationen in der osmanischen Türkei" in MDAIK. Vol. 27: No. 2. 1971. 207-220. Includes photographs XII-LXI.

    • Meinecke, Michael. "Die Bedeutung der Mamlukischen Heraldik für die Kunstgeschichte" in XVIII. Deutscher Orientalistentag. Voigt, W. (edited by). Lübeck, 1-5 October 1972. ZDMG", Supplement. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1974. 213-240.

    Meisami, Julie Scott,

    • Meisami, Julie Scott, Medieval Persian Court Poetry, (Princeton: 1987).

    Meisch, L.A.

    • Meisch, L.A. The Traditional Textiles of the Andes. 1997,

    Meister, Michael W.,

    • Meister, Michael W., "Indian Islam’s Lotus Throne: Kaman and Khatu Kalan," in Islam and Indian Regions, eds. Anna Libera Dallapiccola and Stephanie Lallemant, (Stuttgart: 1993), pp. 445-52.

    Meister, Peter W.

    • Meister, Peter W. Persische Teppich. Hamburg: 1971.

    Melkonian, Monte “Avo”.

    Mellaart, James V.

    Melville, Charles (ed.),

    • Melville, Charles (ed.), Safavid Persia: The History and Politics of an Islamic Society, (London: 1996).

    Melzhitova, El'mira.

    • Melzhitova, El'mira. Turkmen Folk Art. Ashkabad: 1990.

    Memling, Hans.

    • Frequently Oriental Rugs are called Memling rugs but there is no Memling tribe. Hans Memling (1430?-94) was a German born artist who became one of the Flemish masters. A master portrait artist Memling used a projector system to paint very realistic paintings. Hans Memling died in Brugge on Aug. 11, 1494 but we in the rug world remember him by a design that carries his name.

    • Flower Still-life on Memling Gul Rug

    • Virgin and Child Enthroned

    • Hans Memling Hopital St Jean

    Mendenhall, Bethany.

    • A friend of George O'Bannon and a prominient collector.

    • "Memorable Rugs" Santa Monica: ACOR 3, 1996.

    Mera, H.P.

    • Mera, H.P. Spanish-American Blanketry. 1987,

    Mercante d'Oriente.

    • Mercante d'Oriente. Old Carpets and Modern Artist. Verona: (1988).

    • Mercante d'Oriente. Shahsavan Mafrash and Khorjin. Verona: 1986.


    • Merv is an important oasis town north of Herat. Was on the northern trail of the silk route. Merv was one of the most important capitals of Islam until the Mongol period. Eastern capital of the Seljuk Empire that stretched from the Oxus to the Mediterranean.

    • Almost destroyed in 1218 A.D during the Mongol invasion. Merv was resorted by the Timurids in the early fifteenth century.

    • In 1979 the Russians grouped their troops at Merv just prior to the Invasion of Afghanistan. The satalite analyts at the CIA correctly interptreted the massing of troops but Jimmy Carter and his Secretarty of State Cyrus Vance blew the oppertunity to stop the war.

    Merv (battle of )

    Merx, H.U.

    • Merx, H.U. Textile Kunstwerke Der Volker Mittelasiens. vol. 1, 1991,

    Meschoulam, E.M.

    • Meschoulam, E.M. Collezione E.M. Meschoulam. 1984,

    • Meschoulam, E.M. Un Po'Di Turchi Pieni Di Vita. 1991,

    Mesciulam, Leone.

    • Mesciulam, L. Tappeti e Kilim Anatolici dal 600 al 900. Genoa: 1981.

    Metropolitan Club

    Metropolitan Museum of Art.

    Meyer, Carol.

    • Meyer, Carol. "Glass from the North Theater Byzantine Church, and Soundings at Jerash, Jordan, 1982-1983" in Preliminary Reports of ASOR-Sponsored Excavations, 1982-85. Rast, Walter E. (edited by). BASOR" Supplement; 25. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988. 175-222.

    • Meyer, Carol. Glass from Quseir al-Qadim and the Indian Ocean Trade. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization; 53. Chicago: The Oriental Institute, 1992.

    Meyer-Muller AG.

    • Meyer-Muller AG. Kostbarkeiten Aus Dem Orient. n.d.(1985),

    Meyer-Punter, C.

    • Meyer-Punter, C. Der Orientteppich in Geschite Kunstgewerbe und Handel. 1917,

    • Meyer-Punter, C. Meisterwerke Altpersischer Teppichknupferei. 1921,

    Meymaneh , Afghanistan,

    Michell, George,

    • Michell, George, The Hindu Temple: An Introduction to its Meaning and Forms, (New York: 1977).

    • Michell, G. (1978). "Architecture of the Islamic World: Its History and Social Meaning". London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.

    Middleton, A.

    • Middleton, A. Rugs and Carpets. 1996,

    Misra, Ram Gopal,

    • Misra, Ram Gopal, Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders up to 1206 A.D., (Meerut: 1983).

    Michaelian & Kohlberg, Inc,

    Middleton, Andrew.

    • Middleton, Andrew. Rugs and Carpets; Techniques, Traditions and Designs. Miller's Media, 1996 :

    Middle East Research Associates

    • Don Wilber founded Middle East Research Associates in 1957. Not known to be a CIA front Middle East Research Associates was meant to be a vehicle for Don to cash in on his knowledge of the oil region. The venture was never a great success

    Migeon, Gaston.

    • Migeon, Gaston. Les Arts Musulmans. Paris/Bruxelles 1926.

    • Migeon, Gaston. Manuel d'art musulman: Arts plastique et industriels. Paris: Éditions Auguste Picard, 1927.


    • The mihrab is an arched niche, usually framed by columns. It is the focal point of the Mosque where the Imam leads the congregation.

    • A directional niche in a mosque, prayer rug, or almost anything which indicated the direction of prayer.

    Milanesi, E.

    Milhofer, Stefan A.

    • Milhofer, Stefan A. Die Teppiche Zentral Asiens (Rugs of Central Asia) ; Hannover: 1968.

    Miller, Linda.

    Mills, John.

    • It was very sad when I met Mills. I told him that I enjoyed reading his articles and he told me no one reads the articles that they just looked at the pictures. My advice is read his articles but don't tell John.

    • Olçer, N., V. Enderlein, F. Batari, & J. Mills. Turkish Carpets From the 13th -18th Centuries. 1996,

    • Mills, John. Carpets in Paintings ; London: 1975.

    • Mills, John, Contributing Editors, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

    • Mills, John. "FORUM". Hali 98, 1998. page 70. "Hairy mussels in southern Italy."

    • Mills, John. " POSTCARD". Hali 99, 1998. page 55. "John Mills writes from northern Spain, where the Monasterio de Las Huelgas in Burgos and the church of San Isidoro in Leon yield remarkable textile treasures."

    Miller, Charlotte

    Miller, Y.

    • Miller, Y. "Mamlyukskiy Shlem" in Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha. Vol. 41. 1976. 46-48.


    • Polychrome overglaze-decorated ceramic ware from Persia.

    Mina Khana

    • The Mina Khana pattern is a grid or diamond lattice of flowers with the grid as vines.

    Minasian, Carnig.

    Minassian, J. H.

    • Minassian, J. H. The Poetry of Oriental Rugs. Los Angeles: 1920.


    • A raised seat with stairs that is used much like a pulpit for the sermon of the Friday main service in the Mosque.


    • The tower of a Mosque where the Muezzin calls the faithful to prayer. It most likely evolved from the watch towers of Pre-Islamic times.

    Ming Dynasty

    • Ming Dynasty 1368 to 1644

    • Chinese porcelain was imported to Mogul India in the Reign of Akbar. A heavy porcelain called Celadon and sometimes Ghori was popular. Most was Ming 1368 to 1644 with some Sung 960 - 1280 as well. Akbar: the Great Mogul. Page 298 - 299.

    Minorsky, Victor.

    • Minorsky, V. The Chester Beatty Library. A Catalogue of the Turkish Manuscripts and Miniatures. (Dublin, Hodges Figgis & Co Ltd, 1958.)

    • Minorsky, V. A History of Sharwan and Darband in the 10th-11th Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1958).

    • Minorsky, V. Iranica. Twenty articles. [English and French texts]. • Tehran 1964. xxvi, 332 p., 4 plates. (Publications of the University of Tehran 775) Paper Nlg 185

    • Bosworth C. E. ( Editor)]. Iran and Islam. In memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky. Edinburgh, University Press, 1971. In-8, xvj-574 pp., 18 planches de reproductions, cartes, figures, toile sous jaquette.

    • Minorsky, trans, Hudud al-Alam

    • Minorsky, V. (trans. & ed.), Qadi Ahmad, Calligraphers and Painters, (Baltimore: 1959).


    • The ascent of the Prophet to heaven.


    • With Sarafian and Mahmouri, Mir'jalali is one of the greatest Esfahan ustadi "master-weavers" of the second half of the 20th century.

    • Mir'jalali Isfahan rug

    Mir Sayyid Ali

    • One of the founders of the Mughal school of art. Mir Sayyid Ali dropped out of miniature painting by the 1580's and it is generally believed that that is when he died.

    • The Berlin Spiral Tendril Carpet

    Mirza, Tariq

    Mirzakhanian, E.

    • Mirzakhanian, Emil. Tapeti Antichi. n.d., c. 1991,

    • Carpet dealer who owns a very important early 17th century Mughal carpet.


    Misugi, Takatoshi

    • Misugi, Takatoshi and K. Sasaki: The Encyclopedia of Persian Carpet Patterns ; Tokyo: 1990.


    • The land of Egypt.

    Mitchell, George.

    • Mitchell, George. text by Grube, Ernst J. Architecture of the Islamic World, its history and social meaning. Thames and Hudson. 1995

    Moattar, Ltd.,


    • The Chagatai Mongol Horde split into a Turkic component that we know as Timurid and a Mongol component which was called Moghol.

    • Moghol is a language in the Altaic family that is still spoken in a few villages in Afghanistan.

    Mohamed-Moain Sadek,

    • Mohamed-Moain Sadek, Die mamlukische Architektur der Stadt Gaza Review by Jonathan M. Bloom. Mamluk Studies Review. Volume 1.

    Mohammed, Ata.

    • General Ata Mohammed was the leader of the Uzbek resistance to the Russians in the Russian war in Afghanistan. He has been and opponent and rival of Pasha Abdul Rashid Dostum. He is now working with the United Front (Northern Alliance).

    Moller, Leopold "Poldi"

    Momtaz, Irene.

    Momtaz Islamic Art,

    du Monceau, Alan.



    Montgomery, Cornelia.

    • Former Curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

    • Worked with Arthur Upham Pope.

    • Long Association with Peter Pap Oriental Rugs.

    • Good Rug? Great Rug?" Denver: ACOR4 Focus Session, Panel, 1998.

    Moore, J.B.

    • Moore, J.B. The Navajo. 1986,

    Moore, Dede.

    Malcolm C. Moos,



    • Emily was one of the two Specialists in charge at Sotheby's New York Carpet department. Emily has a rare combination of beauty, grace and wit that is all too rare in any endeavor, much less auctions. That and the fact that she is better at returning phone calls then anyone else in the auction business is a winning combination. My understanding is that she has received a nice promotion to work at Sotheby.com.

    • Trusted Resource List - Auction Houses.

    Moraga, Andres.

    • Berkeley, California

    • Cloudband : Magazine : The Market : TRIBAL FAIR CULTIVATES NEW MARKETS

    • North and South Connected: An Abstraction of The Americas. Cecilia de Torres, Ltd. 52 pgs. 16 color plates, 42 b&w illustrations Catalogue of the 1998-99 gallery exhibition with a major essay by the artist and historian Cesár Paternosto and the essay: Three Andean Tunics - Color and Geometry as Metaphor by Vanessa Drake & Andres Moraga. As reviewed by Holland Cotter in the New York Times, "... the show traces a line, or rather several lines, between pre-Colombian art and 20th-century American modernism, with some eye-opening results."

    Moraga, Andres C,

    Moraga, Vanessa,

    • Moraga, Vanessa, Contributing Editors, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

    Morehouse, Brian.

    Morehouse, Stephanie K.

    • Past President of the Textile Group of LA. Wife of Brian Morehouse.

    • Rug Societies

    Morgan, David O.

    Morosova, A.C.

    • Morosova, A.C. et al.: Folk Art of Uzbekistan. Tashkent: 1979.

    Morris, William.

    • William Morris (1834-96), the British craftsman, designer, writer, typographer, and Socialist.William Morris Home Page

    • English designer who started the Arts & Crafts movement.

    • Frequently used Oriental Carpets as models for his designs.

    Morrision, David.

    • Huntington, MI. rug collector and founder of the now defunct Detroit Oriental Rug Society.

    • David Morrision

    Mortensen, I.D.

    • Mortensen, I.D. Nomads of Luristan. 1993,

    Moschkova, Valentina.G.

    Moslih, Hashmatullah.

    • Hashmatullah Moslih is a deputy in the United Front’s foreign ministry.

    Moslem Brotherhood


    • The principle Israeli intelligence agency. Highly effective operation that links to and utilizes the world wide Jewish community.

    Mossadegh, Dr. Mohammad.

    • Mossadegh was Prime Minister of Iran who was overthrown when the Oil Companies and British Intelligence tricked the CIA into toppling the legally constituted Government of Iran.

    • Mossadegh was a patriot who tried to free his country from foreign control.

    • Dr.Mossadegh

    • Noted Islamic Art and Architecture expert and noted rug collector Donald N. Wilbur


    • Mosque is a Muslim house of worship. Prayer is established at four levels; the individual, the congregation, the total population of a town, and the entire Muslim world. For three of these levels, there are distinct architectural structures.

    • The idgah the smallest mosque and is used for prayer by individuals or small groups.

    • The masjid is the second size mosque and is used for daily prayer by individuals or smaller groups. The masjid is not used for Friday congregational worship. The masjid mosque has a mihrab but no minbar.

    • The jami' is the largest mosque. This is where the Friday or congregational mosque. Because this mosque has a minbar and is used for the main weekly service.

    Moths and Moth Control

    Motilal & Brothers,

    • Motilal & Brothers
      Ghosia P O Aurai, Bhadohi, UP, 221301
      PHONE 43227 FAX 360792

    • Carpets & Floor Covering

    Mount Washington


    Mousa, Ahmed

    • Mousa, Ahmed. Zur Geschichte der islâmischen Buchmalerei in Aegypten. Cairo: Government Press, 1931.

    Mubarak, Hosni


    • Mudhahhib is Persian for gilder. One who applies gold and silver to paper.

    • A gilder was of a higher status and more respectable than a painter. Arnold, Painting in Islam. page 3.


    • Taken from the Arabic word mu'azzin, the Muezzin calls the faithful to prayer five times each day at the appointed time. This is generally done from the Minaret of the Mosque.


    • Prophet Muhammed was an Arab who preached a faith that we call Islam. Islam is distinctly different that Christianity and worships a different God.

    Muhriz, Jamal.

    • Muhriz, Jamal. "Min al-Taswir al-Mamluki: Nuskhah min Kitab Da`wat al-Atibba' li-Ibn Butlan" in Majallat Ma`had al-Makhtutat al-`Arabiyah. Vol. 7: No. 2. 1961/1381. 75-80.


    Mughniyah, Imad.

    • "Imad Mughniyah, Hezbollah security chief. Mughniyah, until yesterday, had killed more Americans than bin Laden, had wounded more Americans than bin Laden. Mughniyah was involved with the bombing of the Marine barracks in Beirut, Lebanon, the takeover of TWA 847, and the murder of Navy diver Robert Stethem, the apprehension of several Americans who were held hostage in Beirut, Lebanon." frontline: hunting bin laden: interviews: larry c. johnson

    Mukanov, M.S.

    • Mukanov, M.S. Kazakh Artistic Handicrafts. Alma Ata: 1979.

    Mumford, J.K.

    • Mumford, J.K. Oriental Rugs. Various editions. 4th edition (1923),

    • Mumford, John K.: Chinese Rugs ; NY: 1916.

    • Mumford, John K.: Oriental Rugs ; NY: 1900. 284 pp., (1902),

    Munzen & Medaillen.

    • Munzen & Medaillen. Auction catalogue 46: Aegyptische Kunst. Hunzenund Medaillen. 28 April 1972, Basel,

    Munkacsi, Kurt.

    Murex Dye

    Murray, John.

    Murray, Thomas,

    • Murray, Thomas, Contributing Editors, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

    Musée du Tapis et des Arts Textiles

    Museum for Textiles, Toronto, Canada

    Museum für Islamische Kunst

    • Museum of Islamic Art - Museum für Islamische Kunst

    • Museum für Islamische Kunst. Islamische Kunst: Verborgene Schätze: Ausstellung des Museums für Islamische Kunst, Berlin. Berlin: Staatliche Museen Preußicher Kulturbesitz, 1986.

    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston


    Mushak, Paul.

    • Dr. Paul Mushak is a leading expert on dyes used in Oriental Rugs. Paul has done extensive chemical analysis of dyes in rugs and has published articles on his studies. Paul is one of the top experts on pediatric lead and arsenic poisoning.

    • Formerly on the faculty of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine.

    • Now heads a professional practice in toxicology in Durham.

    • Visiting Professor of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City.

    • Member - Triangle Rug Society

    • Salor Shallow Tent-Bag (Torba), sd93n154

    • Jewelry Asmalyk

    • \author:P. author:Mushak\ - Google Scholar

    • The Mushak/Marsh Salor Torba

    • Mushak, Paul. Environmental Lead And Human Health : Science, Risk Assessment And Regulation, May 2008, Hardcover

    • Mushak, Paul. Crocetti, Annemarie F. Response: Accuracy, Arsenic, and Cancer. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Oct;104(10):1014–1018.
      Mushak P, Crocetti AF. Risk and revisionism in arsenic cancer risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect. 1995 103(7-8):684–689.Jul–Aug; [PubMed]

    • "Dr. Paul Mushak is a principal in PB Associates, Durham, N.C., a consulting partnership in toxicology and health risk assessment. He specializes in the exposure and health risk assessment of elements such as lead, arsenic, cadmium and mercury. Dr. Mushak holds a Ph.D. in metal chemistry and biochemistry (1970), University of Florida (UF)-Gainesville, FL with extensive training in metal toxicology at the UF School of Medicine. His post-doctoral training was in nutrient and toxic metal enzymology, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University. Dr. Mushak was formerly a full-time member of the faculty at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Department of Pathology (1971-1985) and adjunct full professor in that department (1986 through 1993). Dr. Mushak currently has an affiliation with the Albert Einstein College of Medicine as an unsalaried visiting professor in the Department of Pediatrics. Research interests include measurement and predictive modeling of toxic metal exposure biomarkers in humans and the factors affecting them. He has authored or coauthored about 175 papers, book chapters, conference abstracts. Dr. Mushak was a principal coauthor of many expert consensus documents for Federal, National Academy of Sciences, and international health agencies. He has served on numerous peer-review panels, and chaired two peer review panels for U.S. EPA reports to Congress on mercury emissions. Dr. Mushak has testified on several occasions before the U.S. Congress regarding childhood lead exposures. He has been qualified in a number of Federal and state courts as an expert in the toxicology and health risk assessment of lead and other metals. Dr. Mushak has served on a number of SAB panels in the past, including two panels dealing with peer evaluation of EPA’s Integrated Exposure-Uptake Biokinetic Model for use in assessing lead exposures around point source lead emissions and Superfund sites and a panel evaluating risk posed by chromated copper arsenate-treated lumber to young children. In addition, he served on an ad hoc EPA committee examining the first version of the all-ages lead model. Dr. Mushak has no outside contract or grant support related to the IEUBK or All-Ages Lead Model." Paul Mushak | EPA Science Advisory Board | US EPA

    • NRDC: Arsenic and Old Laws - Report Credits and Acknowledgments

    Mushkat, Fred.

    Mushkat, Louis.

    • MUSHKAT Louis Mushkat, of Westerville, died February 28, 2000 in St. Ann's Hospital. He is survived by his wife, Edna; children, Jill Mushkat of Cleveland, Fred Mushkat of Paducah, Ky. and Mark Mushkat of San Francisco, Calif.; grandchildren, Zoe and Peter Mushkat, Erin and Brian Ambrosio; nephews, Michael, Randy and Scott Guberman; cousins, Doris and Jack Kott. Memorial service will be held 11:30 a.m. Wednesday at THE EPSTEIN MEMORIAL CHAPEL, 3232 E. Main St. with Rabbi Donni Aaron officiating. Memorial contributions may be made to the American Heart Association. Obituaries for March 1, 2000

    Muslim Brotherhood

    • An international Muslim fundamentalist organization. In Egypt it has emerged as a political party that controls almost one third of the seats in Parliament. It is closely linked to international Terrorism including but not limited to Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda.

    Mustafá, Muhammad.

    • Mustafá, Muhammad. "Ba`d al-Tuhaf al-Hammah, min Muqtanayat Dar al-Athar al-`Arabiyah fi al-Sanatayn al-Akhiratayn" in MTM. Vol. 1. 1948. 230-233.

    • Mustafá, Muhammad. "Two Fragments of Egyptian Lustre Painted Ceramics from the Mamlouk Period" in BIE. Vol. 31. 1948-1949. 377-382.


    Myers, Diana K.

    • Diana is a delightful lady. I sat with her at a International Hajji Baba meeting a few years ago.

    • Myers, D.K. & Bean, S.S. From The Land of the Thunder Dragon. Textile Arts of Bhutan. 1994,

    • Myers, Diana K. Temple Household, Horseback: Rugs of the Tibetan Plateau. Washington, D.C.: 1984.

    Myers, George Hewitt.

    • George Hewitt Myers was a wealthy Washington DC rug collector who founded the Textile Museum as an outgrowth of his own collection. The Textile Museum is housed in the two connected homes that Myers owned on S Street N.E. near 24th street. Nice houses but a bad solution for the Textile Museum's needs. They would be better suited to sell the homes and get a more suitable location.

    • As I heard the story Myers bought his first oriental carpet for his dorm room at Yale. I am not sure if it is true but supposedly the rug was so dry-rotted that the first time he shook it over the railing to clean it it fell to pieces. Any way as early as his undergraduate days at Yale he became interested in Oriental Rugs. Myers studied forestry and became friends with some of the other foresters of the day including Gifford Pinchot and Theodore Roosevelt. My understanding is that while he was successful in lumber the real money came from a step brother the Myers of Bristol Myers.

    J. Barry O'Connell Jr.

    Copyright Barry O'Connell 2004 - 2006.
    Last revised: November 10, 2008.