Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

JBOCs Notes on Oriental Rugs

Rug Notes Index - P

Hagop Manoyan Antique RugsNazmiyal Antique Rugs

Pacific Asia Museum.

  • Pacific Asia museum is located at 46 North Los Robles Avenue, one half block north of Colorado Boulevard in downtown Pasadena. For more information about Pacific Asia museum call 626/449-2742, fax 626/449-2754 www.pacasiamuseum.org/

  • Pacific Asia Museum. Woven Jewels, Tibetan Rugs from Southern California Collections. Pasadena: 1992.

  • Pacific Asia Museum - Pasadena, CA

Page, J.

  • Page, J. & Page, S. The Woven Mystery, Old Tibetan Rugs. 1990.

Page, S.

  • Page, J. & Page, S. The Woven Mystery, Old Tibetan Rugs. 1990.

Pahlavi, Mohammed Reza Shah

Pahlavi, Reza.

  • Son of Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavithe last Shah of Iran. Born 1961. Left Iran in 1979 when his father fled the country at the controls of his own Boeing 707. Reza is a pilot and has been a nightclub owner. Lives in Northern Virginia and hopes to regain the monarchy.

Pahlawan, Abdul Malik

  • General Abdul Malik Pahlawan or General Abdul Malik, a former aide to General Dostum. Upset over the death of his brother Pahlawan sold out Dostum to the Taliban for money. He revolted 3 days after Taliban took Mazar-i-Sharif. Pahlawan ordered the execution of about 3,000 Taliban prisoners. He allowed raping, looting and genocide by his men.

  • Abdul Malik also sold out Ismail Khan to the Taliban at a May 18, 1997 breakfast meeting that was actually an ambush.

Paiwand, Shir Khosrow.

  • Paiwand has an important personal collection of Rugs from Afghanistan. He is an expert on Baluch and the other weaving groups of Afghanistan.

  • Parsons, R. D. Oriental Rugs Volume 3 The Carpets of Afghanistan.

  • Trusted Resource List - Rug & Carpet Dealers Outside The U.S.

  • New Turkoman and Baluch Rug Shop Opens in Toronto

    On a recent trip to Canada, we were pleased to visit Shir Paiwand, one of our rug dealer friends from Afghanistan, who has recently opened a rug shop in Toronto. In Kabul he stressed condition in his inventory of old rugs and this is still true of his current inventory. It has been s time since we have been in a rug shop in the United States or Canada with as extensive an inventory of new and old Baluch and Turkoman rugs, and it was a pleasant experience. We saw some roomsize Turkoman and Baluch pieces of a quality; condition, and age that we have not seen for years. Certainly recent shipments from Afghanistan that we have seen had little to compare with these. We wish Paiwand well and encourage readers to visit the shop when in Toronto:

    Herat Rugs
    234 Queen Street East Toronto,
    Ontario M5A 1S3
    Telephone: 416-360-4431

    George O'Bannon Rug Notes, 8/4 (http://www.rugreview.com/84h.htm)

Paksoy, H. B. D. Phil.


Pal, Pratapaditya.

  • The Dr. Pratapaditya Pal Page

Palestine Islamic Jihad

  • The PIJ, or Palestine Islamic Jihad. Formed among the militant Palestinians in the Gaza Strip during the 1970s, this group is committed to the creation of an Islamic Palestinian state and the destruction of Israel through holy war. The PIJ regards the United States as an enemy because of its support for Israel.

Palestinian Liberation Organization

  • The PLO or Palestinian Liberation Organization was once more radical then it is today. The PLO transitioned from Terrorism to Government and today no longer merit's inclusion on a terrorist list.

  • The PLO is a union of many closely aligned groups with similar aims.

  • The PLO is an umbrella organization composed of several groups with diverse ideologies that have as their common goal the achievement of a Palestinian state. The PLO is governed by its parliament, the Palestine National Council (PNC), which is made up of representatives from the PLO member groups as well as independent members. The real power is heald by the 15 member Executive Committee that meets regularly and functions much like a board of directors.

  • PLO Member Organizations:

    • Fatah

      • Western Sector

      • Force 17

    • Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP);

    • Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP);

      • Hawatmah Faction;

      • Abd Rabbu Faction;

    • Palestine Liberation Front (PLF);

      • Abu Abbas Faction;

      • Tal'at Yaqub Faction;

    • Arab Liberation Front (ALF);

    • Palestinian People's Party Popular Struggle Front.

Palmer, Alan,

  • Palmer, Alan, The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire, New York, Barnes and Noble Books, 1992.

Pankisi Gorge

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered Russia's airforce to bomb Pankisi Gorge on Nov. 27-28, 2001. Pankisi Gorge is deep into Georgian territory. Russian Sources claim "Chechen and international terrorists" have been operating from Pankisi Gorge and Tiblisi.

Pap, Peter.


Parham, Cyrus.

Parson, T.

  • Parson, T. Design's Guide To Scandinavian Patterns. 1993,

Parsons, Richard D.

  • Parsons has written the single best book on the rugs of Afghanistan. He was the buyer for OCM and has a detailed knowledge of what was in the Afghan market in the 1970s.

  • He now operates a carpet shop in Hong Kong.

Oriental Rugs: The Carpets of Afghanistan
by R. D. Parsons

Parsons, R. D. Oriental Rugs Volume 3 The Carpets of Afghanistan. 1990, 3rd ed.,

Oriental Rugs Vol.3 - Afghanistan

The author provides a new introduction and two additional chapters dealing with the huge refugee problem and consequent changes in carpet production.

Forty supplementary colour plates illustrate and enhance this new material which, combined with the original text and illustrations, guide the keen collector and the first-time buyer through a labyrinth of fascinating choices.

Author Richard Parsons, for many years buyer in Afghanistan for the well-known firm O.C.M. (London) Ltd., treats the reader to not only a veritable feast of carpets and rugs, all with their attendant tribal origins and motifs vividly explained, but also to a fascinating journey through the history of a diverse, colourful, multiracial country.

The author shares his respect and admiration for Afghanistan’s stoic people, who somehow, despite political upheavals, forced resettlement, a harsh climate, and often primitive nomadic living conditions, manage to fashion exquisite works of art which reflect their pride in their many-faceted heritage. Afghan rugs, which are instantly appealing due to their traditional colours and bold designs, open up a whole new vista for the collector, from sumptuous piled purdahs to flat woven prayer rugs.

The Author
On completing his National Service in Egypt, Richard Parsons spent some time with the Colonial Service, before joining a Mining Finance house and working for several years in West Africa before being posted to Teheran. Here he fell in love with Oriental carpets and on completion of his assignment in Iran, faced with the prospect of a London office, he abandoned his career for the carpet trade, to the consternation of his family and friends.

He subsequently joined the prestigious firm of Oriental Carpet Wholesalers in the U.K., whose agents buy from all over the carpet- making world for sale in the U.K. and redistribution all over the world. After training at the London warehouse and in Iran, he was sent to Afghanistan as assistant buyer. He soon took over full responsibilities staying on in Afghanistan until 1979, when that country was occupied by the Soviet Union, then went as buyer to Pakistan, where he lived and worked until the end of 1981. Richard Parsons now works in Hong Kong.

His knowledge and love of Afghan rugs have prompted him to devote a great deal of time researching, writing and recording for posterity the details of rug production and tribal history in that remote but beautiful country.1851491449


  • Atlantic Realty Companies recently acquired a retail property at the corner of Wisconsin and Woodmont Avenues in the Bethesda, MD central business district. Known as the home of Parvizian Rugs and the defunct Bell Laundry, the three contiguous buildings covering 41,000 sq.ft. will be renovated and renamed Bethesda Corner. The site is presently 50% occupied. The seller was Metropolitan Properties and financing was provided by Crestar Bank.
    For more information, contact Charlie Nulsen at (703-760-9500). Issue Number 14

  • Home Furnishings by Parvizian has taken over the former Artefact space at 4901 Richmond near the West Loop.

    Gus Parvizian has come out of retirement to purchase the 18,000-square-foot building for $2.7 million. Parvizian is planning to add 7,000 square feet to the store, which is scheduled to open in January.

    Parvizian Masterpiece Oriental Rugs opened in Houston 23 years ago, but Parvizian's new venture will offer furniture for the first time, along with some of the company's handmade rugs.

    The store will feature top-end furniture from the United States, France, Italy and Spain. Designer services also will be available to customers. Kmart's blue light growing dimmer as potential closures loom - 2002-11-11 - Houston Business Journal

Parvizian, Abdi.

  • Mr. & Mrs. Abdi Parvizian hired Suburban Video to record their daughter's Persian Wedding Celebration at the ANA Hotel, Washington DC.  Our experience with a wide variety and number of ethnic weddings allowed Suburban Video to provide the exact type of video coverage required during these artistic and complicated events.  The Bride ordered our Crystal Reel Highlight Version, which is an elegantly-styled and creative rendering of the affair fit for broadcast on television.  Suburban Video mixed Persian and American music to cover the highlights, and added live audio from the vows along with slow motion, layered dissolves and Black & White sections of video footage.  "The Parvizian Crystal Reel" was 23 minutes of the most beautiful wedding footage we have ever produced, and is an excellent example of Suburban Video's position as being 'The Standard' when it comes to Top Quality Wedding Video Production! Persian Wedding at The ANA Hotel in Washington DC


  • The principle ethno-linguistic group in Afghanistan, they speak variations of Western Pashto. In the north the they are called Pahktuns and in the south are called Pashtuns. They are related but distinct from the Pathans of Pakistan.

  • Dialects: Ghilzai, Durani. The Ghilzai speakers are nomadic and 24% of the national population. The Durani, 16%, live in permanent settlements. Ethnologue Afghanistan

  • The clans are: Mohmandi, Ghilzai, Durani, Yusufzai, Afridi, Kandahari (Qandahari), Waziri, Chinwari (Shinwari), Mangal, Wenetsi. Kandahari is the standard dialect. Ethnologue Afghanistan

  • Pashtun Sleeping Rug


  • The area of Southern Afghanistan and Northwest Pakistan inhabited by the Pashtun people.


  • Pakistan Pashtuns of Pashtunistan. They speak Eastern Pashto and are related to but distinct from the Pashtuns of Afghanistan.

Paton, Sam,

  • Paton, Sam, Art Editor, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

Paquin, Gerard.

Sheila Payne.

Pazaryk Carpet

  • The Pazaryk Carpet was found frozen in ice in Kurgen V in the Altai Mountains of Siberia by a Russian archeologist named S. Rudenko. C14 dating indicated the rug is 2500 years old.

  • The rug is wool on wool 1.98 m by 1.83 m.

  • 3600 knots per sq. Dm. (aprox. 200 KPSI)

  • The rug was originally thought to be Persian, Anatolian, or Armenian but now on the basis of dye analysis by Harald Bohmer it is most likely that the Pazaryk Carpet was made in the area in which it was found.

  • Principle red dye - Polish Kermis.

  • Ulrich Schurmann, The Pazaryk.

  • Bohmer, Harald, "Dyeing For Color" Ghereh, September 1997 pg. 7.

  • Stronach, David. "Patterns of Prestige in the Pazaryk Carpet." In Oriental Carpet And Textile Studies. IV, 1993,

Peacock Rug

  • The Peacock Rug is attributable to Lahore India, circa 1600. It is now in the collection of Osterreichisches Museum fur angewandte Kunst, Vienna.

  • The Peacock Rug

Peacock Throne

  • There have been a number of Peacock Thrones. Nadir Shah brought back a famous Peacock throne from India bought that was broken up for it's gold and jewels. There is currently a Peacock Throne in the Gulistan Palace in Teheran which was ordered by Fath Ali Shah circa 1800. The throne gained the name Peacock after Fath Ali Shah decided to take a favorite wife named Peacock (Tavus) on the throne on their wedding night.

Pearson, J. D.

  • Pearson, J. D. A Bibliography of the Architecture, Arts and Crafts of Islam: Second Supplement, January 1972--December 1980. Cairo: AUC, 1984.

Peck, W. H.

  • Peck, W. H. & Ross, J. G. Drawings From Ancient Egypt. London UK: Thames & Hudson, 1978

Pedersen, G.

  • Pedersen, G. Afghan Nomads in Transition. 1995,



  • AKA Pepsi Cola. Carbonated beverage that is number two in soft drink sales in most of the world but is number one in the Moslem world. Served to guests with dinner by Osama Bin Laden.


  • A city or ceremonial site that dates to the time of Cyrus the Great.

  • It was first assumed that it was a city but now it appears as if it may only have had ceremonial purposes. It is noted for its extravagant stone sculpture

Petherbridge, Guy.

  • Bosch, Gulnar, John Carswell, and Guy Petherbridge. Islamic Bindings and Bookmaking. Exhibition catalogue. Chicago, 1981.

Petsopoulos, Yanni

  • Yanni Petsopoulos, London, England.

  • Studied at the Architectural Association in London. Extensive travels in the Middle East to study Islamic architecture and art.

  • In Praise of Allah, Catalogue of a Prayer Kilim exhibition, London, 1974.

  • The Undiscovered Kilim, co-author, London, 1976.

  • Kilims - a Traditional Art, with M. Franses, Fribourg, 1978.

  • "Turkish Flatweaves". Washington DC: ICOC 1980.

  • Petsopoulos, Y. and Balpinar, B. Kilims. Masterpieces From Turkey. 1991,

  • Petsopoulos, Y. Kilims. 1979,

  • Petsopoulos, Yanni. Kilims: Flat-Woven Tapestry Rugs New York: Rizzoli 1979

  • Petsopoulos, Yanni, ed. Tulips, Arabesques and Turbans: Decorative Arts from the Ottoman Empire. New York: Abbeville Press, 1982.

  • From Cyprus to Munich

Peterson, Bengt.

  • Peterson, Bengt. "Blue and White Imitation Pottery from the Ghaibi and Related Workshops in Mediaeval Cairo" in Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm. Vol. 52. 1980. 65-88.

  • Peterson, Bengt. "Sherds of Blue and White Imitation Pottery from Mediaeval Cairo" in Medelhavsmuseet Bulletin. Vol. 17. 1982. 59-68. The Museum of Mediterranean and Near Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm.

Petillo, Liz Callison.

  • "Restoration From The Owner's Viewpoint", Chicago: Panelist ACOR II, 1996

Petry, Carl F.

  • Petry, Carl F. "Review of Renaissance of Islam: Art of the Mamluks, by Esin Atil" in JNES. Vol. 42. 1983. 328-329.

Pevzner, S. B.

  • Pevzner, S. B. "Egipetskaia mednaia chasha XV" in Soobshcheniia Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha. Vol. 11. 1957. 55-56. Additional title in table of contents: "Coupe egyptienne en cuivre du XV siecle

  • Pevzner, S. B. "Egipetskaia mednaia misochka XIV v." in Soobshcheniia Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha. Vol. 10. 1956. 43-45. Additional title in table of contents: "Petit bassin egyptien en cuivre du XIV siecle

  • Pevzner, S. B. "K voprosu o proizvodstve thaney v Egipte v XIII-XV vv." in Issledovaniya po istorii kul'tury narodov Vostoka. Sbornik v chest' Akademika I. A. Orbeli. Moscow and Leningrad, 1960. 404-412.

Philadelphia Museum of Art

  • The PMA has a very significant collection of classical carpets.

  • Benjamin Franklin Parkway and 26th Street | Philadelphia, PA 19130
    (215) 763-8100 | TTY: (215) 684-7600

  • Museum Hours:
    Tuesday through Sunday, 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
    Wednesday and Friday evenings until 8:45 p.m.
    Closed Mondays and legal holidays.

  • Ellis, Charles Grant. Oriental Carpets in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia: Philadelphia.

  • Oriental Rugs at The Philadelphia Museum of Art


Phillips, B.

  • Phillips, B. Carpet Styles. 1997,

Philon, Helen.

  • Wife of the Greek Ambassador to the United States, Alexander Philon.

  • Independent scholar based in Washington, former art historian and museum curator.

  • Philon, Helen. "A Mamluk Deposition from the Cross" in Graeco-Arabica. Vol. 2. 1983. 265-273.

  • Philon, Helen Helen Philon ; foreword, Angelos Delivorias ; preface, Ernst J. Grube ; an essay on the inscriptions, Manijeh Bayani-Wolpert ; a technical note, R. E. Jones ; drawings by T. Townsend Walford ; photographs by Vanessa Stamford Early Islamic ceramics :ninth to late twelfth centuries Islamic Art Publications ;Totowa, N.J. :Distributed by Sotheby Parke Bernet Publications,1980.

  • Out & About

  • Research Presentation (Freer and Sackler Galleries), Ahmed Shah's Tomb in Bidar: Rustic Deccani or Urban Elitist?



Piaskowski, Jerzy.

  • Piaskowski, Jerzy. "Metallographic Examination of Two Damascene Steel Blades" in Journal of the History of Arabic Science. Vol. 2. 1978. 3-30.

Pickering, Brooke.

Pickering, William Russell.

Pinder-Wilson, Ralph H.

  • Mr. Ralph Hutchinson Pinder-Wilson, Department of Oriental Antiquities The British Museum, London WC1

  • Former Visiting Fellows All Souls. 1967-1968

  • Pinder-Wilson, Ralph H. "Review of A Bibliography of the Architecture, Arts and Crafts of Islam, to 1st January 1960, by K. A. C. Creswell" in BSOAS. Vol. 25. 1962. 609-610.

  • Pinder-Wilson, Ralph H. Persian Painting of the Fifteenth Century. Faber & Faber. [1958]

  • Pinder-Wilson, Ralph H  Paintings from the Muslim courts of India. 1976

  • G.R.D. King, “The sculptures of the pre-Islamic haram at Makka”, From Kabul to Cairo, Studies in honour of Ralph Pinder-Wilson. 2002.

  • Pinder-Wilson-, Ralph. "The Persian Garden: Bagh and Chahar Bagh." In The Islamic Garden. Ed. Elizabeth B. Macdougall and Richard Ettinghausen, pp. 69-86. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1976.

  • Lane, Arthur; Ralph Pinder-Wilson. Later Islamic Pottery. Persia, Syria, Egypt, Turkey. 1957.

Pinkwart, Doris.

  • Pinkwart, Doris and Steiner, Elisabet. "The Conservative Approach of Northwest Anatolian Yoruk Women to their Traditional Weaving". Hamburg/Berlin ICOC7 1993.

  • Pinkwart, D. & E. Steiner. Bergama Cuvallari, Decorated Sacks of the Yoruks in Northwestern Turkey.

Pinner, Lesley.

  • The late Lesley Pinner, wife of Robert Pinner, London England.

  • Compiler of Index Kewensis, the premier publication of The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. One of her main interests was in the structure and technique of rugs and, apart from her own publications, she has contributed structure analyses to many others.

  • Prominent Turkoman collector and expert including the lesser known Uzbek, Kirghis and Kazakh tribes of Central Asia.

  • "Tekke Pile Rugs". Washington DC: ICOC 1980.

Pinner, Robert.


  • Pir is a title of respect from the Persian, meaning old man and head or founder of a religious order. It means the same as the Arabic word sheikh. Paksoy, Alpamysh. Chapter 3 note 7.

Pittenger, Robert.

Ploier, H.

  • Ploier, H. Gewebte Poesie. 1991,

Pohl-Schillings, H.

  • Pohl-Schillings, H. E. & Ford, P. R. J. Persische Flachgewebe. 1987,

  • Pohl-Schillings, Hans E.: Aussergewohnliche Orienteppiche III. ; Koln: 1989.

  • Pohl-Schillings. H. E. Aussergewohnliche Orienteppiche. VI. 1992,

  • Pohl-Schillings, H. Aussergewohnliche Orienteppiche VII. 1993,

  • Pohl-Schillings, H. et al. Persian Flatweaves, Pictures of Iran. Koln: 1994.

  • Pohl-Schillings, H., Najmadbadi, S. & Meyer, H. Persische Flachgewebe. Bilder Aus Iran / Persian Flatweaves.

  • Pohl-Schillings, H. E. Aussergewohnliche Orienteppiche IV. n.d. (1990),

  • Pohl-Schillings, H. E. Aussergewohnliche Orienteppiche V. n.d. (1991),

Poldi Pezzoli Hunting carpet

  • The oldest dated carpet in the world is the Poldi Pezzoli Hunting carpet and was made in Tabriz in 1522.

Polo, Marco.

  • Marco Polo left Venice in 1270 and returned in 1295. Polo claimed to have traveled to Yuan (Mongol) China and spent 17 years in the service of Kublai Khan the Yuan emperor and grandson of Cinggis Qan.

  • The story of his travels were recorded by Rustichiello of Pisa in a Genoese prison where he was incarcerated with Polo in about 1300.

  • Marco Polo encountered the Qaraunus or Nicudari in 1271. Morgan, The Mongols. Page 95.

  • Marco Polo praised the carpets of Kerman as a marvel to see in 1270.

Polonaise Carpets & Rugs

Poole, Elizabeth C.

  • Now with www.eruggallery.com

  • Elizabeth C. Poole Formerly Carpet Expert Christie's New York. She replaced James Ffrench. She was formerly with Butterfield's in San Francisco.

  • I always had a difficult reaching Ffrench by phone and when Miss Poole replaced him I did not fare any better getting my calls answered. Needless to say I stopped calling. I must note however when I see her she is very nice. 

  • Member San Francisco Bay Area Rug Society, the Textile Museum, as well as the New York Hajji's

  • Major Changes at Christie's

  • Trusted Resource List - Auction Houses.

Ponchio, Paolo.

  • "Historical Background on the Pescocostanzo Rugs". Hamburg/Berlin ICOC7 1993.

Popalzai Tribe

  • The Popalzai tribe was the founding tribe of Durrani Pashtuns. The founder of the confederation was Saddo Malik who organized the tribes under Shah Abbas. He was given control of the local tribes in exchange for keeping the road safe from Herat to Kandahar. The coalition became the Durrani Pashtuns later and the elite tribe was the Popalzai. The elite clan of the Popalzai are the Saddozai (sons of Saddo the founder). The Saddozai lost control of the tribal confederation and the Durrani empire in 1818 when it passed to the Mohamadzai clan of the Ghilzai.

  • The Saddozai clan and the Popalzai tribe are led by Hamid Karzai son of the late Ahad Khan Karzai. Even though King Zahir Shah is a Mohamadzai he is close to the Karzai family and is married to a blood relative of the current chief Hamid Karzai.

  • The Popalzai are strongest in the Provinces of Kandahar, Uruzgan, Helmand and Ghor.

Pope, Arthur Upham.


  • It is customary to refer to the men whose job it is to handle the carpets as Porters. These men may roll, unroll, deliver, flip etc... the carpets. 

  • Porters do not act as salesmen but salesmen often act as Porters. 

  • Tipping Porters is customary if they perform a personal service such as loading or unloading your car for you. Salesmen are not tipped.

Porter, Yves,

  • Porter, Yves, (trans. S. Butani), Painters, Paintings, and Books: An Essay on Indo-Persian Technical Literature, 12-19th Centuries, (New Delhi: 1994).

Posener, G.

  • Posener, G. Dictionnaire De La Civilization Egyptienne. 1959,

Powell Avril. A.

  • Dr. A. A. Powell Room 309. E-mail: ap5@soas.ac.uk Senior Lecturer in the History of South Asia SOAS, University of London UK.

  • Powell, Avril A. Muslims and Missionaries in Pre-Mutiny India. University of Hawaii Press, 1996.

Price, Steven.

Price, William T.

  • Dr William Price is a prominent Texas Cardiologist and one of the elder statesmen of the rug world. Price was a Hajji Baba member in the club's McMullan days. Price assembled a major collection which he donated to a Museum in San Antonio. He also donated his equally (or more) important Asian sculpture to the same museum.

  • The Joseph V. McMullan Award

  • Price William T. Divine Images and Magic Carpets.

Pringle, Denys.

  • Pringle, Denys. "Thirteenth-Century Pottery from the Monastery of St. Mary of Carmel" in Levant. Vol. 16. 1984. 91-111.

  • Pringle, Denys. "The Medieval Pottery of Palestine and Transjordan (A.D. 636-1500): An Introduction, Gazetteer and Bibliography" in Medieval Ceramics. Vol. 5. 1981. 45-60.

Prisse d'Avennes,

  • Prisse d'Avennes, Achille Constant Théodore Émile. Arab Art as Seen through the Monuments of Cairo from the 7th Century to the 18th. London: Al Saqi/Paris: Le Sycomore, 1983.

  • Prisse d'Avennes, Achille Constant Théodore Émile. L'art arabe d'après les monuments du Kaire depuis le VIIe siècle jusqu'à la fin du XVIIIe. Paris: A. Morel, 1877. Reprinted in four volumes: Beirut: Eastern Art, 1974.

Pritsak, Omeljan.

  • Pritsak, Omeljan. "Review of Manuel arabe de la langue des Turcs et des Kiptchaks à l'époque de l'État Mamlouk, by Ananiasz Zajaczkowski" in Der Islam. Vol. 32. 1957. 362-365.

  • Pritsak, Omeljan. "Review of Vocabulaire arabe-kiptchak de l'époque de l'État mamelouk: "Bulgat al-Mustaq fi Lugat at-Turk wa-l-Qifz²aq", by Ananiasz Zajaczkowski" in Der Islam. Vol. 32. 1957. 362-367.

  • Pritsak, Omeljan. "Das Kiptschakische" in Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta. Deny, Jean et al. (edited by). Vol. 1. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1959. 74-87.


  • Provenance as it applies to Oriental rugs is a concept used in appraisals that who owned a piece of art and the associated history of the piece affect the estimate of value. For instance, rugs that were not valuable as rugs sold for a great deal of money in the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis estate sale at Sotheby’s because of the Kennedy Provenance. Therefore, a previous owner may increase the value. This also comes into play in establishing legitimate ownership. If you had a rug that was looted from Jews by the Nazi Germans that provenance would decrease the value since the rug could (should) be restored to its rightful owners.

    See Carpets of the Treasure Train

Prost, Claude.

  • Prost, Claude. Les revêtments céramiques dans les monuments musulmans de l'Égypte. MIFAO; 40. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale, 1917.


  • A Purdah is virtually identical to an Ensi but is from Afghanistan and on average is slightly larger than a Turkmen Ensi. Many of the Purdahs are attributable to the Ersari but many are just labeled Afghan. If not Ersari what then, Uzbek?

Purdey, Veronica,

  • Purdey, Veronica, Database & Circulation Consultant, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

Purdon, Nick.

  • Purdon, Nicholas, Former Senior Editor, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

  • "Rug Literature Today" Denver: ACOR4 Focus Session, 1998.

  • Rumored to have left Hali to work with Alan Marcuson on an Internet venture that should debut at the beginning of 1999.

  • Nick Purdon Editor and Content Director www.cloudband.com 

  • Nick Purdon later left Cloudband and went back to school.

Purdon, Richard.


  • A pillow or small mat 2 by 3 feet or smaller used as a cushion.

J. Barry O'Connell Jr.

Copyright Barry O'Connell 2004 - 2006.
Last revised: November 09, 2008.

Persian Rugs the O'Connell Guides

Tabriz Rugs


Tabriz-Rugs & Carpets

Kashmar Rugs

Isfahan Rugs

Hamadan Rugs

Mashad Rugs

Gabbeh Rugs

Heriz Rugs

Ardabil Rugs

Lylyan Rugs

Turkmen Rugs

Persian Rugs

Turkish Rugs


Oriental Rugs

Persian Carpets

Baluch Rugs,

The Qashqai and Qashqai Rugs

Veramin Rugs

Tribal Rugs












Index to my Rug Notes

How Do I Find An Honest Rug Dealer?