Nazmiyal Antique Rugs

JBOCs Notes on Oriental Rugs

Rug Notes Index - S

Hagop Manoyan Antique RugsNazmiyal Antique Rugs


Sabahi, Taher.

  • Notes on Taher Sabahi


Sachau, Edward C.,

  • Sachau, Edward C., Alberuni’s India, 2 vols. in 1, (London: 1964).

Sackville Mughal Animal Carpet

Sadan, J.

  • Sadan, J. Le mobilier au Proche Orient médiéval. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1976.

Sadighi, Hamid.

  • Sadighi, H. & Hawkes, K. Kelims Der Nomaden Und Bauern Eersiens. 1990,

  • Sadighi, Hamid. Caucasus Persia ; Munich: 1996.

  • Sadighi, H. & Hawkes, K. Gabbehs. Stammesteppiche Der Bergnomaden Am Zagros (Primitive Rugs)

Sadovsky, Henry.

Safadi, Y. H.

  • Safadi, Y. H. (1978). "Islamic Calligraphy". London: Thames and Hudson Ltd.

  • Lings, M., & Safadi, Y.H., The Qur'an, (A catalogue of an exhibition of Qur'an manuscripts at the British Library, 3 April-15 August 1976), British Library,

Safavid Dynasty



  • A prayer kelim with a Mihrab design used for prayers.

Sakamoto, Kazuko.

  • Sakamoto, Kazuko. "The Marked Characteristics of the Textiles Unearthed from the Al-Tar Caves, Iraq." In Oriental Carpet and Textile Studies. IV, 1993,


Salafi Group for Call and Combat

  • Salafi Group for Call and Combat an offshoot of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) is believed to be under the leadership of Hassan Hattab since 1999. His leadership has meant a shift of attacks from civilians to the Algerian military. Still the assassination of popular Berber singer Matoub Lounes in June of 1998 serves only to alienate the Salafi Group for Call and Combat from the Algerian people. Salafi Group for Call and Combat is believed to be part of al-Qaeda.

  • Armed Islamic Group (GIA)


  • A.K.A. Wahhabis

  • Saudi Arabian Islamic Cult that calls itself Salafists and thinks of themselves as Sunni.

Salahi, Rasol

  • Formerly of Mazar-i-Sharif Afghanistan now repairing rugs in the San Francisco Bay area.

  • Rasol Salahi

Salang Tunnel

  • The Salang Tunnel is at an elevation of about 11,00 feet and is the highest tunnel in the world. It was built with Russian aid in the 1960s.


Salt Bags

Salting Carpets

Salting, George.


  • A dialect of Ersari.

  • In former times the elite tribe of the Ersari.

  • Descendents of the Seljuk and Seljuk the Oguz leader who led the conversion to Islam.

Salzman, Philip C.

  • 1972 Multi-Resource Nomadism in Iranian Baluchistan, in Perspectives on Nomadism, ed. W.G. Irons and N. Dyson-Hudson. Leiden, pp. 60-68.

Sam Mirza

  • Sam Mirza was the brother of Shah Tahmasp and Bahram Mirza

  • 1534 Hosayn Khan-e Shamlu attempted to overthrow Shah Tahmasp and put his brother Sam Mirza on the throne of Persia, . Soudavar, APC. Page 154.

Samarkand Galleries

  • Brian MacDonald's Samarkand Galleries specialize in antique tribal weavings. He offers an exquisite selection of old and antique tribal and village rugs, decorative carpets, kilims, tribal utilitarian bags, dowry weavings and animal trappings, plus a selection of old and antique nomadic and tribal artifacts. His stock of antique rugs and textiles is sourced from all of the major rug and kilim weaving areas: Persia (Iran), Anatolia (Turkey), Afghanistan, the Caucasus, and the Central Asian regions inhabited by Turkmen tribes.

  • Trusted Resource List - Samarkand Galleries.

  • mac@samarkand.co.uk

  • Samarkand Galleries

Sameyeh, Sh.

  • Sameyeh, Sh. Islamic Art Hand-Knotted Oriental Carpet.

Samovar Rugs (or borders)

  • A Samovar is a Russian coffee urn.

  • Discussion - What is a Samovar Rug - 03/14/2000


  • The modern name of Senna. capital of Kordestan in Islamic Republic of Iran.


  • In July 1993 Sandinistas came to power in Nicaragua overthrowing the Somoza Government. Cyrus Vance took the stance that we needed to work with the Sandinistas so that while they stayed leftwing they might maintain a nonaligned stance. Rubin, Barry Secrets of State. Page 218

Sanford, Emily.

Sancaktaroglu, T.

  • Sancaktaroglu, T. ed.: "Kulture ve Sanat" (Culture and Art) ; Ankara: 1977.


Sanford, Emily.

Sankilampi, Timo

Santos, Mark.

  • Portland Oregon tribal and collectable rug dealer.



  • A town in Persian Azeribaijan that is a major rug production center.


  • Town in Northern Afghanistan that is a collection point for Hazara weaving.

  • It is on the Northern edge of the Hazarajat close to Afghan Turkestan.

  • Uzbek Sar-i-Pul Bag

Sarkisian, H. Medill.

  • Sarkisian, H. Medill. Asia Minor Textiles 17th-19th Century ; Boulder: 1978.

  • Sarkisian, H.M. & J. Hoag. Textiles of eastern Persia and Central Asia; Boulder: 1980.


Sarre, Friedrich.

Sassounian, Harry.


Saudi Arabian Intelligence

  • Under former head Prince Turki Al-Faisal (Replaced August 2001) of Saudi Arabian Intelligence funneled money, arms, trucks, and intelligence to Taliban, al-Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden. Every step of the way Saudi Arabian Intelligence supplied money to bribe Taliban opposition into submission. The Forerunner trucks that Taliban used were a gift from Saudi Arabian Intelligence and bought in the Persian Gulf.

  • Saudi Arabian Intelligence behind 911 Report on 9/11 Suggests a Role by Saudi Spies

Saunders, Peter E.

Sauvaget, Jean.

  • Sauvaget, Jean. "L'architecture musulmane en Syrie, ses caractères, son évolution" in Revue des arts asiatiques. Vol. 8. 1934. 19-51.

  • Sauvaget, Jean. Poteries syro-mésopotamiennes du XIVe siècle. Documents d'études orientales de l'Institut français de Damas; 1. Damascus: Librairie Ernest Leroux, 1932.

Savage-Smith, Emilie.

  • Savage-Smith, Emilie. Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use. Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology; 46. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985. With a chapter on iconography by Andrea P. A. Belloli.


  • Also Sabalan. Long dormant volcano rising up over 15,000 feet. Northeast of Tabriz, northwest of Ardebil in Iranian Azerbaijan.

  • The southern slope is home to Heriz Rugs & Carpets. From Savalan north to the Azeribaijan border is called Karadagh in rug terminology.

  • Savalan is the Summer pastures of the Moghan Savalan Shahsevan

Saye Gosha

Sayyaf, Abdul Rasul.

al-Sayyid, al-Sayyid Fathi.

  • al-Sayyid, al-Sayyid Fathi. "Tist bi-Ism Khuwand al-Kabirah Jihat Qaytbay" in Dirasat Athariyah Islamiyah. Vol. 5. 1995. 87-146.

  • al-Sayyid, al-Sayyid Fathi. "Tist Nahhas Yahmil Ism al-Sultan Abu al-Sa`adat Muhammad Qaytbay" in Dirasat Athariyah Islamiyah. Vol. 4. 1990. 3-10.



Scanlon, George T.

  • Scanlon, George T. "Egypt and China: Trade and Imitation" in Islam and the Trade of Asia: A Colloquium. Richards, D. S. (edited by). Oxford: Bruno Cassirer, 1970. 81-95. Review see Ashtor; Ehrenkreutz; Labib; Latham.

  • Scanlon, George T. "Review of The Art and Architecture of Islam, 1250-1800, by Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom" in JARCE. Vol. 33. 1996. 209-212.

  • Scanlon, George T. "Some Mamluk Ceramic Shapes from Fustat: 'Sgraff' and 'Slip'" in Dirasat Athariyah Islamiyah. Vol. 2. 1980. 59-145.

  • Scanlon, George T. "Mamluk Pottery: More Evidence from Fustat" in Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Vol. 2. 1984. 115-126.

Scamuzzi, E.

  • Scamuzzi, E. Egyptian Art in the Egyptian Museum of Turin. Abrams, 1965,

Scarce, Jennifer

  • 1990 The Persian Shawl Industry, The Textile Museum Journal 1988/1989, v.27/28, pp.22-39.

Schaber, W.

  • Schaber, W. & I. Sailer. Galerie Sailer. 20 Years in Salzburg / 20 Jahre Galerie Sailer Salzburg. 1996,

  • Schaber, W. Aus Der Welt Des Kelims. The World of The Kelim. 1984,

  • Simcox, J. & Schaber, W. Chinese Textiles. 960 -1860 A.D. 1991,

Schlosser, Ignace

Scerrato, U.

  • Scerrato, U. (1976). "Islam: Monuments of Civilization". New York: Grosset & Dunlap.

Schafer, Edward H.

Schapira, Magda.

  • Schapira, Magda. Anatolian Carpets from the Magda Schapira Collection ; London: 1976.

Schenck, Sharon

Schiffer, N.M.

  • Schiffer, N.M. Navajo Navajo Today. 1991,

  • Schiffer, N.M. Pictorial Navajos of The Navajo. 1991,

Schimmel, Annemarie,

Schlamminger, Karl.

  • Schlamminger, Karl and P.L. Wilson Weaver of Tales, Persian Picture Rugs Munich 1980.

Schletzer D. & R.

  • Schletzer D. & R. Old Silver Jewelry of the Turkoman ; Berlin: 1984.

Schlick, D.P.

  • Schlick, D.P. Modern Oriental Carpets. 1968,

Schlosser, I.

  • Schlosser, I. The Book of Rugs, Oriental and European. 1969, Bonanza(Crown),

Schmidt, J. Heinrich.

  • Schmidt, J. Heinrich. "Damaste der Mamlukenzeit" in Ars Islamica. Vol. 1. 1934. 99-109.

Schmitz, Barbara.

  • Schmitz, Barbara. "The Mamluk Revival: Metalwork for Religious and Domestic Use" in Oriental Art. Vol. 28. 1982-1983. 191-192. Exhibition . . . New York, 1982

  • Schmitz Barbara, Islamic Manuscripts in the New York Public Library, (New York: 1992).

  • Schmitz Barbara et al., Islamic and Indian Manuscripts and Paintings in the Pierpont Morgan Library, (New York: 1997).

Scheunemann, Brigitte

  • 1955 Das Papyrusmotiv aus Ägyptischen Teppichen Mamlukischer Zeit, Kunst des Orients, vol. 2, pp. 52-58.

Schumann, C. W.

  • Schumann, C. W. & V. Gantzhorn. 99 Teppiche/Rugs. 1993,

  • Schumann, C.-W., Tietzel, B., Brues, E. & Gasthaus, R. Textilien Aller Welt. 1986,

Schurmann, Ulrich.

Schutte, Marie Von.

  • Schutte, Marie Von. Perser-Teppiche ; Leipzig: 1935.

Walter Schwitter Carpets

Schwarz, H. G.

  • Schwarz, H. G. Carpets From The Orient. 1977,

  • Schwarz, H. G. Visions of Paradise: The Art of the Oriental Carpet. 1983,

Schwarts, Ora

  • 1977 Jewish Weaving in Kurdistan, Journal of Jewish Art, vols. 3-4.

Scott, G.W.

  • Scott, G.W. An Illustrated Guide to Making Oriental Rugs. 1984,

Scythian Art

Seiler-Baldinger, A.

  • Seiler-Baldinger, A. Hangematten-Kunst. Textile Ausdrucksform Bei Yagua- Und Ticuna-Indianern

Sistan-Balouchestan Province

Seljuk Sultanate of Rum

  • The Seljuk were a Oghuz tribe that traveled west.

  • These Seljuk were kin to the Saltuq of the Ersari Confederation. Ersari being another pronunciation of Azeri which is the names of the dialect that each group spoke.

  • Seljuk Sultanate of Rum 1205 - 43 Collapsed due to Mongol battering at the battle of Kosedag 1243. Wagstaff Landscapes Page 189.

Sen, P.

  • Sen, P. Crafts of West Bengal. 1994,


  • Of the Senjab Kurd tribe. Senjabi Kurd bags are noted for their offset knotting.


  • Sennah is the rug book name for Sannandag the capitol of Kordestan in Northwest Iran.

  • It is a center for very sophisticated weaving.

  • In town it is very fine single wefted weaving and in the surrounding areas they make Bijar type rugs.


  • Serab is a town in Northwest Iran that is east of Tabriz and southeast of Heriz.

  • Cecil


  • The greatest workshop of 20th century Isfahan. The best known workshop is the Sarafian. The elder Sarafian created the design that has become identified as the quintessential 20th century Isfahan. Sarafian was a major workshop that popularized a style that we see in the Serafian Isphahan Carpet . Intricate fine work, extravagant Islimis. Perhaps extravagant is not the right word because it is details such as the correct execution of a multi-plane Islimis that makes them stand out.

  • "Today 26x26 is pretty common and many higher knot count pieces coming into Pakistan seem to be the handiwork of half baked weavers/designers. 900 kpsi used to be (occasionally) Uncle Habibian's and, of course, Aghai Serafian's preserve, even his son Sadiq rarely attempted it." New Persian Carpets - Qum, Kum, Gum

  • Serafian Isphahan Carpet


  • A town on the Khorasan Turkmenistan border that a home of Turkmen including Tekke and Salor.


Service, John Stewart

Seth, Tilak Raj.

Sevi, Daniele.

  • Sevi, D. Tappeti Anatolici Del XIXe Secolo. 1985,

  • Sevi, D. Tappeti Caucasici Dex XVIII E XIX Secolo. 1983,

  • Sevi, Daniele. Kazak, Selezione di Tappeti dell'Otto Cento ; Milano: 1982.

  • Sevi, Daniele. Tappeti Caucasici ; Milano: 1982.

Sewan Kazak

Shaffer, Danny.


Shah of Iran

Shah Rukh

  • Shah Rukh (1407-47) Son of Timur.

  • 1404 Timur dies and by 1407 Shah Rukh overcomes the other challengers and takes his fathers Ulus.

  • He mover the capital from Samarkand to Herat.

  • Under Shah Rukh Herat went through a period of great art beauty, and accomplishment.

Shah, Tamor.

Shah Quli, Sah Kulu

Shahin, `Ala' al-Din.

  • Shahin, `Ala' al-Din. "Qaytbay's Decoration: An Analysis of the Architectural Decoration of Various Cairene Facades from the Period of Qaytbay" Master's thesis, American University in Cairo, 1987.

Shahnameh (Book of Kings); c. 1330-40


  • A late Safavid era Kizilbash confederation created to counter balance older Kizilbash confederations.

  • The Shahsavan was a product of the Kizilbash policies of the Safavid Shahs. It was a created Il to act as a political and military counter measure to more established Kizilbash Ils in the later part of the Safavi dynasty.

  • Shahsavan Bag, s689n24

Shalem, Avinoam.

  • Shalem, Avinoam. Forbidden Territory Early Islamic Audience-Hall Carpets. Hali 99, 1998. page 70. "What can be known of the use of early royal Carpets? Literary sources show that the carpet on which a caliph was seated was an inviolable area, an extension of the royal presence that could not be entered without special authority."


Shankar, A.

  • Shankar, A. & Housego, J. Bridal Dhuries of India. 1997,

Sharaf, Muhammad.

  • Muhammad Sharaf was a prominent Jihad member in Sudan. When al-Qaeda came to believe that his 15 year old son was an informent Dr. Zawahiri ordered him killed.

Sharaf 'ed-din, S.

  • Sharaf 'ed-din, S. (19??) . "Zakharaf Islamieyya". Cairo: al-Markaz al-Arabi le'l-Nasher wa't-tawzie.


  • Moslem religious law. In the order of precedence in Islamic law Sharia is the third source of authority after the Koran and the Hadiths of the Prophet. It takes precedence over traition. While it is the third in precedence it also contains how te first two are to be seen so it in effect defines each branch of Islam.


  • Rug producing city in Northern Afghanistan. Center for higher quality Afghan run woven in the Mori Tekke style.

Shaybanid Horde

Muhammad Shaybani Khan

Shaykh Muhammad

Shaykhzadeh Mahmud

Sheehan, Michael A.

  • Ambassador Michael A. Sheehan, is the U.S. Coordinator for counterterrorism.

  • Michael A. Sheehan began his government career in the Military Counter-intelligence. In 1989 under President Bush the elder joined the administration. He served during the Clinton administration on the National Security Council.

  • Strong link to our friend in Richmond.

Shehady, Wade Jr.


  • Azerbaijani city. Also spelled Samaxi.

  • Considered by many to be the origin of Sumac. While it is likely they wove Sumac there I think it is unlikely it stared there.

  • Once an ancient capital and major trading center, Samaxi was nearly destroyed over the centuries by repeated earthquakes. Some old buildings have survived, however, and are worth seeing. Notable among them are a royal mausoleum, a fortress and a 10th-century mosque. Visitors can tour carpet factories and local vineyards (which produce overly sweet fortified wines). 80 mi/130 km west of Baku. http://www.usembassybaku.org/post/city.htm

Shelesnyak, MC

Sher Khan Lodi

Sherbarghan Meeting

  • Early in April of 1998 Ambassador Bill Richardson, United States Representative to the United Nations met with United Front President Professor Rabbani, NIMA leader General Abdul Rashid Dostum, and Hezb-i-Wadat Chairman Usted Karim Khalili to discuss a possible cease fire and exchange of prisoners with Taliban.

  • Some saw this meeting as an attempt to clean up lose ends before recognizing Taliban and giving the the Afghanistan seat at the UN. There was a very strong pro-Taliban contingent in the US Department of State including Roberta Chew.

Sherzai, Gul Agha.

  • On Tuesday November 13, 2001 former Governor of Kandahar Gov. Gul Agha Sherzai raised a 1000 man army in Quetta Pakistan and launched an attempt to take Kandahar.

  • Shirzai represents the political party of Ahmed Gailani, head of the National Islamic Front of Afghanistan, a primarily Pashtun Mujahedin party dating from the Russian war. Shirzai is a supporter of King Zahir Shah.

Shihadeh, Peter.


  • The tradition that the Prophet's successor must be a descendent of the Prophet by Ali.

Shiki Rugs

Shir Shah Sur


  • A western spelling of Siraaz the capitol of Fars province in Iran.

Shirinian, Avak.

Sherley Robert and Anthony.


Shokoohy, Mehrdad.

  • Shokoohy, Mehrdad. "Review of Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture, vol. 1, edited by Oleg Grabar" in BSOAS. Vol. 48. 1985. 140-141.

  • Shokoohy, Mehrdad, "Architecture of the Muslim Trading Communities in India," in Islam and Indian Regions, vol. 1 (1993), (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1993), pp. 291-319.

  • Shokoohy, Mehrdad. Bhadresvar: The Oldest Islamic Monuments in India, (Leiden: 1988).

  • Shokoohy, Natalie H., "The Architecture of Baha al-Din Tughrul in the Region of Bayana, Rajasthan," in Muqarnas, vol. 4 (1987), pp. 114-32.


Shouldice, Conrad.

  • Shouldice, Conrad. "Fragments". Hali 97, 1998. page 65. "Lord of the Jungle."

Shrivastava, A.L.,

  • Shrivastava, A.L., "A Survey of India’s Resistance to Medieval Invaders from the Northwest: Causes of Eventual Hindu Defeat," in Journal of Indian History, vol. XLIII (1965), pp. 349-68.


  • Shusha was the capitol city of Karabagh. It is a source of long rugs that bear similarities to Dragon Carpets.

  • Shusha Carpet, c1296n212

Shushan, A.

  • Shushan, A. (19??). "a'lem naf'saka al-Khat al-Arabi: Khat al Naskh". Egypt: al-Markaz al-Arabi le'lnashr wat-tawzee'a.

Siegal, W.

  • Siegal, W. Aymara - Boliviansche Textilien / Historic Aymara Textiles. 1991,

Siegelaub, S.

  • Siegelaub, S. Bibliographical Textilia Historiae. 1997,

Sigelmassi, M. Dr.

  • Sigelmassi, M. Dr. Les Arts Traditionnels Au Maroc ; Paris: 1986.

Silk Route


Silman Khan

  • His mother was a sister of Shah Tahmasp and he was married to a princess of the royal family.

  • Govenor of Gilan and important royal ally in war with Ottomen

Simakoff, N.

  • Simakoff, N. L'Art de 'Asie Centrale ; St. Petersburg: 1883.

Simcox, Jacqueline.

  • Simcox, Jacqueline. "Exhibitions". Hali 97, 1998. page 86. "The alchemy of silk."

  • Simcox, J. & Schaber, W. Chinese Textiles. 960 -1860 A.D. 1991,

Simonsen, Jørgen B.

  • Simonsen, Jørgen B. "Syria and Egypt" in Sultan, Shah, and Great Mughal: The History and Culture of the Islamic World. Copenhagen: The National Museum, 1996. 155-167.

  • Simonsen, Jørgen B. "Trade" in Sultan, Shah, and Great Mughal: The History and Culture of the Islamic World. Copenhagen: The National Museum, 1996. 204-215.

Simpson, Marianna Shreve,

Sims, Eleanor.


  • A giant bird of Asian mythology. large enough to carry a child.

Sinan, Mimar.

  • Mimar Sinan, the Chief of Architects to the Sultans from 1538 to 1588

  • A Christian Greek from near Kayseri who joined the Janissary Corps and converted to Islam. He started as a carpenter and rose to Chief of Architects. He was responsible for over 100 mosques and is noted for the domed mosque sty;le we see in Turkey.


  • Ottoman

Singer, André F.V.

  • 1976 A Study of the Impact of Social and Cultural Change upon Ethnic Identity in Eastern Iran. Ph.D. thesis, Oxford Univeristy.


  • Xinjiang Western Turkic province of the evil Red Chinese empire.



  • Siraaz is the capitol of Fars province in Iran.

  • Usually refered to as Shiraz in the rug literature.


  • City in Iran east of Shiraz and west of Kerman. Collection point for distinctive Afshar rugs.

  • discussion - 70 year old Sirjand Afshar - 03/20/2000

Sirrs, Julie.

  • Notes on Julie Sirrs


  • Daw'zar or Dozar 1 by 2 meters.

  • Kinarah 1 by 4 meters.

  • Pushti less than 1 meter.

  • Zar-u Nim 1 by 1.5 meters.

Skosyrev, P.

  • Skosyrev, P. Soviet Turkmenistan ; Moscow: 1956.

Sklyansky, Efraim.

  • Efraim Sklyansky, Trotsky's right-hand man, a revolutionist with exceptional military talents, who was driven out of office by intrigues and machinations when Trotsky was forced to surrender his post as Commissar of War, and who undoubtedly escaped prison or the firing squad as an "agent of Hitler "only because he died in an accident in New York in 1925." Stalin School of Falsification -- Introduction

Skousen, W. Cleon.

Smith, Holly.

  • Well known Boston carpet restorer.

  • "Possibilities of Restoration" Denver: ACOR4 Focus Session, 1998.

Smith, W.S.

  • Smith, W.S. Ancient Egypt. 1960, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,

Smith, Vincent Arthur,

  • Smith, Vincent Arthur, 1848-1920.

  • Smith, Vincent A. Akbar: the Great Mogul, 1542-1605 / Imprint Delhi: A. Chand, 1966.

Smithsonian Institution.

  • Smithsonian Institution. Aditi. The Living Arts of India. 1985,

Snow, Helen Foster.

  • Helen Foster Snow and her husband Edgar were both very close to Red China and the Communist leadership.

  • Corresponded with Sheila Payne.

  • Snow, Helen Foster. The Chinese Communists: Sketches and Autobiographies of the Old Guard. Westport: Greenwood, 1972. Reprint.


Sofu, Halil Ibrahim.

  • Halil Ibrahim Sofu was a radical moslem terrorist murdered in 1997 by Muhammed Metin Kaplan the founder of Kalifatsstaat. Kaplan is serving a four-year jail sentence for ordering the murder.

Sobhe, Khosrow.

Sommer, Dr. and Mrs. John.


  • The city of Sonqur is a collection point for Kolyai Kurdish rugs.


Soucek, Priscilla P.

  • Notes on Priscilla P. Soucek

Sourdel-Thomine, Janine.

  • Sourdel-Thomine, Janine. Die Kunst des Islam. Propyläen Kunstgeschichte; 4. Berlin: Propyläen Verlag, 1973.

  • Sourdel-Thomine, Janine. "Clefs et serrures de la Ka'ba: Notes d'épigraphie arabe" in REI. Vol. 39. 1971. 29-86.

  • Sourdel-Thomine, Janine. "Review of "Inscriptions mobilières de l'Égypte musulmane," by Gaston Wiet" in Arabica. Vol. 7. 1960. 99-100.

  • Sourdel-Thomine, Janine. "Review of Later Islamic Pottery: Persia, Syria, Egypt, Turkey, by Arthur Lane" in Der Islam. Vol. 50. 1973. 382-383.

Soudavar, Abolala.

Sourdel, Dominique.

  • Notes on Dominique Sourdel

Souresrafil, Shirin.

Soustiel, Jean.

  • Soustiel, Jean. La céramique islamique. Paris: Éditions Vilo, 1985. Review see Nogues.


  • European country that produced a distinctive variation of the North African Islamic weaving. They used a so-called "Spanish Knot" which was tied on one warp rather than the more common technique of tying it on two.

  • Spanish Carpet, s689n149

Special Activities Division

  • Special Activities Division is the military wing of the CIA reporting to the deputy director for operations.

Spink & Son, Ltd.

  • Spink & Son, Ltd. Octagon-The Arts of Islam Special Issue ; London: (1980?)

  • Spink & Sons: The Rogers Collection ; London: 1985.


  • Spink. A Journey Through India. 1996. Two volumes,

  • Spink. Far Eastern Art. 1993,

  • Spink. Far Eastern Art. 1994,

  • Spink. Splendors of the East. 1997,

Splendour International

Spoer, H. Henry.

  • Spoer, H. Henry. "Arab Magic Medicinal Bowls" in JAOS. Vol. 55. 1935. 237-256.

  • Spoer, H. Henry. "Arabic Magic Bowls II: An Astrological Bowl" in JAOS. Vol. 58. 1938. 366-383.

Spooner, Brian.

Spuhler, Friedrich.

Spuler, Bertold.


  • Town in India that is an important production center for Indian commercial rug production.

Staatliches Museum fur Volkerkunde -State Museum of Ethnology

Staffel, Reyn and Susan.

Stahl, S.

  • Stahl, S. Alte Kelims / Eski Kilimer. 1990,

Standish, Alex.

  • Alex Standish, is the editor of the London-based Jane's Intelligence Digest and is acknowledged as a expert on terrorism.

Stanzer, Wilfried.

Stauffer, Thomas R.

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur.

Steindorff, G.

  • Steindorff, G. & Seele, K.C. When Egypt Ruled The East. 1942, University of Chicago Press,

Steiner, Elisabeth.

  • Pinkwart, Doris and Steiner, Elisabeth. "The Conservative Approach of Northwest Anatolian Yuruk Women to their Traditional Weaving". Hamburg/Berlin ICOC7 1993.

Steiner Verlag,

  • Steiner Verlag, Bhadresvar: The Oldest Islamic Monuments in India, (Leiden: 1988).

  • Steiner Verlag, and Shokoohy, Natalie H., "The Architecture of Baha al-Din Tughrul in the Region of Bayana, Rajasthan," in Muqarnas, vol. 4 (1987), pp. 114-32.

Stepanyan, Nona.

  • Stepanyan, Nona. "Ornamentation of Caucasian Carpets and its Parallels to Medieval Armenian Miniature and Stone Carving" In Oriental Carpet and Textile Studies. IV, 1993,

Stephan, St. H.

  • Stephan, St. H. "A Forged 'Mamluke' Copper Plate" in Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society. Vol. 19. 1939. 45-47.

Sterner, Maj

  • Sterner, Maj and J. Kinch: Antika Oriental Iska Mattor I Sverige (Oriental Rugs in Sweden) ; Stockholm: 1937.

Stettler, Dr. Romuald.

  • Stettler, Dr. Romuald. Stammesteppiche avi Afghanistan und Turkestan (Tribal Rugs of Afghanistan and Turkestan) ; Bern:

Stettler, R.

  • Stettler, R. Beludsche Und Afghan. 1993,

  • Stettler, R. Die Kurden. 1986,

  • Stettler, R. Kunsterzeugnisse Aus OrientalIschen Nomadenzelten. (Art in Nomad Tents). 1985,

  • Stettler, R. Nomadenteppiche Aus Sudpersien. 1984,

  • Stettler, R. Teppiche Auf Den Spuren Marco Polos. 1987,

Stevens, R.B.

  • Stevens, R.B. Turkish Rugs. The Rachel B. Stevens Memorial Collection. 1972,

Stewart, D.

  • Stewart, D. Early Islam. 1967, Time-Life, Great Ages of Man series.

Stinger missiles

Stone, Peter.

Stone-Miller, R.

  • Stone-Miller, R. Art of the Andes. 1995, Stone-Miller, Rebecca. "Books". Hali 98, 1998. page 103.

  • "Review - Andean Art at Dumbarton Oaks.' Suriano, Carlo Maria, Contributing Editors, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

Stchoukine, Ivan.

Stern, S.M.,

  • Stern, S.M., "Heterodox Ismailism at the time of al Muizz," in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. 17 (1955)

  • Stern, S.M., "Isma’ili Propaganda and Fatimid Rule in Sind," in Islamic Culture (Oct. 1949), pp. 298-307.Sauvaget, J. (ed/trans.), Relation de la Chine et de l'Inde, (Paris: 1948), 16.

Stoudtsburg Antique Mall,

  • RT. 272, Adamstown, PA 19501, 717-484-4386 Antique mall every Sunday, over 500 dealers, clock tower Thur. - Mon.

Straka, J.M.

  • Major collector who gave his collection to the TM and a catalog was published.

  • Straka, J.M. & Mackie, L. The Oriental Rug Collection of Jerome And Mary Jane Straka. 1978,

Streusand, Douglas E.

  • Streusand, Douglas E. "Review of The Lion of Egypt: Sultan Baybars I and the Near East in the Thirteenth Century, by Peter Thorau, and translated by Peter M. Holt; and Les trois vies du sultan Baïbars: Choix des textes et présentation, edited by Jacqueline Sublet" in Middle East Studies Association Bulletin. Vol. 27: No. 2. 1993. 260-261.

Stronach, David.


  • The Sudanese government also supports regional Islamic and non-Islamic opposition and insurgent groups in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Uganda, and Tunisia, according to the State Department report.

  • The Government of Sudan has close ties to Osama Bin Laden and is practicing genocide against Christians and heathens (animists) in Souther Sudan. The Sudan oil deposits are being developed in cooperation with Red China.

  • Sudan hosted Osama Bin Laden in Sudan 1991 – 1996. During this period Bin Laden joined forces with Sudan leader Hassan Turabi who has been wage war on Christians and enslaving them in the Sudan (1992). While Bin Laden was in Sudan he arrainged the first attach on the World Trade Center (1993), the assasination attempt on Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in 1995 and the Khobar tower bombings in 1996. Finnally Sudan was forced to expell Bin Laden.


  • The seven Sudeiris also Al-Sudeiri seven

  • The seven sons that King Saud had with with his primary wife Hassa al Sudeiri.

  • Prince Bandar Bin Sultan Bin Abdul Aziz is a grandson of King Saud and Hassa al Sudeiri by Prince Bandar.

Suez Crisis,

  • In 1956 England Israel, and France devised a plot to seize the Suez Canal. Israel would fake an Invasion of Egypt which would give England the chance to reestablish military control over the canal. The Soviet Union immediately countered by threatening Nuclear attack on England with long range missiles. At the same time the Egyptians sank ships to block the canal and the Arabs stopped the flow of oil. The pound sterling began to crash on the International market and England was forced to beg the United States for oil and monetary support. Loftus & Aarons. Secret War page 250 - 251. It was at this moment the British Empire ceased to be a world power and the age of empire ended for England. With first India gone and now the Middle East, England struggled to remain a major power really retaining only the trappings and devolving into a neo-vassal state of the US.


  • A practitioner of mystical Islam in Sunni and Shia practice. The movement is almost Arminian in that it emphasizes experiential Islam rather than doctrinal theology.

Suiyuan Rugs


Sulaiman The Magnificent

  • Sultan Sulaiman 1520 -1566

  • Expanded the empire taking Belgrade in 1521 and the Island of Rhodes in 1522.

Sullivan, Mary Hammond.


  • Sultanabad was the capitol city of Arak Province and is now called Arak. It was the site of the principle Ziegler weaving site in the 1880s.

  • Sultanabad Carpet, s1097n164



  • Azerbaijani city. Also spelled Sumqayit.

  • Founded in 1949, Sumgait (pop. 235,000) is a fine example of a grim, Soviet-style industrial city. It's worth seeing if only to grasp the staggering damage to the environment wreaked by the Soviet authorities. Most visitors go to Sumgait only because it's on the way to Quba from Baku. 25 mi/40 km northwest of Baku. http://www.usembassybaku.org/post/city.htm

Summers, Janice.

  • Summers is a popular author and is active with the Quebec Oriental Rug & Textile Society.

  • Rug Societies

  • Summers, J. (1994). "Oriental Rug: The Illustrated Buyer's Guide". New York, Crown Publishing, Inc.

Sumner, Teddy.

  • Teddy Sumner is the principal of Black Mountain Looms and Michaelian & Kohlberg, rug production companies based in New York.

  • "Contemporary Handmade Rug Weaving" Santa Monica: ACOR 3, 1996.

Summers, Janice.

  • Summers, J. The Illustrated Oriental Rugs World Buyers' Guide. 1994,

Sung Dynasty

  • Sung Dynasty 960 - 1280

  • Chinese dynasty which was overthrown by the Mongols or as the Chinese called them the Yuan dynasty.


  • The tradition that the Prophet's successor must be elected. This tradition is the main branch of Islam and is embraced by about 85 percent of all Muslims.

Suriano, Carlo Maria.


Swan, Wendel.

Swietochowski, M. L.,

Swing, Raymond Gram.

Sylvester, D.

J. Barry O'Connell Jr.

Copyright Barry O'Connell 2004 - 2006.
Last revised: March 19, 2009.

Persian Rugs the O'Connell Guides

Tabriz Rugs


Tabriz-Rugs & Carpets

Kashmar Rugs

Isfahan Rugs

Hamadan Rugs

Mashad Rugs

Gabbeh Rugs

Heriz Rugs

Ardabil Rugs

Lylyan Rugs

Turkmen Rugs

Persian Rugs

Turkish Rugs


Oriental Rugs

Persian Carpets

Baluch Rugs,

The Qashqai and Qashqai Rugs

Veramin Rugs

Tribal Rugs












Index to my Rug Notes

How Do I Find An Honest Rug Dealer?