Nazmiyal Antique Rugs
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Tabbaa, Yasser,

  • Tabbaa, Yasser, "The Muqarnas Dome, its Origin and Meaning," in Muqarnas, vol. 3 1985.


Tabrizi Hook or Knife

Tadgell, Christopher,

  • Tadgell, Christopher, The History of Architecture in India: From the Dawn of Civilization to the End of the Raj, London UK: 1990.

Tafkir Group


  • Afghan Turkmen. The Taghan were a part of the Ersari Turkmen and most of these come from the Labijar Afghanistan area.

Tagyeva, Roiya C.

  • Tagyeva, Roiya C. Carpets of Azerbaijan in the 19th and 20th Centuries ; Baku: 1988.

Shah Tahmasp


  • Taimani A dialect of Chahar Aimaq. In former times a component tribe of the Chahar Aimaq.

  • In the war of succession after the death of Mongke a Tamma of the Golden Horde became separated in the war against the Il-Khanids and was stranded on the Indian border. Most likely the Zamindawar of Afghanistan. That Tamma was joined by the remnants of a Golden Horde Tamma under the General Neguder or as the Persians called him Nicuder. The Tamma basically went independent or Qazaq. We know the Nicudari figured prominently in the Baburnama so from that source we can link the Taimani of today with the lost Tamma of the thirteenth century. As a side note, French historian Jean Aubin postulates that this group was the Qaraunus of whom Marco Polo wrote.

  • Members of a Tamma of Golden Horde warriors ended up in Afghanistan about 1261 and are known to us as Qaraunus or Nicudari. (They were unable to return to the Horde because of war with the Il-Khanids) Morgan, The Mongols. Page 95

  • September 6th 1260 a Mamluk army under Baibars smashed a smaller Mongol army at Ain Jalut in Galilee. Hulegu rushed to revenge his men but became embroiled in war with the Golden Horde. This stopped the Mongol western advance. Rossabi, Khubilai Khan. Page 55.

  • Taimani Rug with Long Skirts

  • Baluch Rugs: Seh Mihraba Taimani Rug

  • Baluch Rugs: Taimani Baluch Rug

  • Chahar Aymaq Pushti Bag/Pillow

Taj Mahal:

  • The huge white marble mausoleum built by Shah Jahan for his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal. After her death during childbirth in 1631 Shah Jahan set over 20,000 artists, designers, craftsmen, and laborers to work on what may easily be considered one of the greatest buildings of all time. The building is important because of the delicate beauty of a blend of Islamic art and Hindu art.

  • Explore the Taj Mahal India, online VR tour

Takehara, Shinji.

  • Takehara, Shinji. "Dantsu, Japanese Cotton Pile Carpets". Hali 98, 1998. page 74. "Probably inspired by Chinese models, dantsu rugs nevertheless acquired a uniquely Japanese identity. At first the province of the very rich, they were later produced cheap

Talas, Battle of

  • 751 AD: Battle of Talas: The Tang Chinese were defeated by the Moslem Arabs at the battle of the Talas River northeast of Tashkent. It was at this battle that Chinese papermakers were captured by the Arabs and paper making spread west.

  • Care and feeding of the Akhal Teke/Tekke Horses by Boulger

  • Talas is in modern day Kyrgyzstan.


  • Taleqan or Talehan

  • There are two Taleqans of note in Afghanistan. The more important today is in the Northeast east of Kunduz. The more significant in a historical perspective is the Taleqan which guards the northern approach of a pass through the Hindu Kush. Since in ancient times there were only 6 passes through the Hindu Kush and this was the most important Taleqan was a key city at the time of the Mongol invasion in 1221.

  • Wahabbi Uzbek Commander of Taleqan Juma Namangani


  • Student.


  • Pathan Tablighi parties (now known as the Taliban)

  • Created out of the refugee community in Pakistan and shaped into a rebel force under Pakistan Minister of the Interior General Naseerullah Babar. General Naseerullah Babar was a leader of the Jamiat-e-Ulema-i-Islami which was a political party that controlled the maddrasahs (religious schools) where the Talibs (students) we recruited to create Taliban. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto had to accept Taliban to get Jamiat-e-Ulema-i-Islami support for her coalition Government.

  • Up until at least Kabul, Pakistani soldiers were dressing up as Taliban and supporting the rabble. Command and control was by Pakistani Army officers. Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) and the Pakistani airforce service Taliban MiG jets and helicopters.

  • Major funding comes through poppy cultivation and the Heroin trade. Taliban does not participate directly but taxes the drug dealers and growers 20%. I do not believe the Heroin trade could exist without the acquiescence of the Pakistani Government.

  • Sharia Law

    • Taliban enforces Sharia (Islamic) law that calls for stoning as a punishment or chopping off a limb.

  • Taliban started as a flavor of Heterodox Sunni Islam but has had considerable Wahhabi influence.

  • Taliban and Islam

  • Wahabbi Uzbek Commander of Taleqan Juma Namangani


Talwar, K.

  • Talwar, K. & Krishna, K. Indian Pigment Paintings on Cloth. 1979,


  • "The term tamga, originally referring to the ``seal'' of a given group, was later borrowed by Russians to designate customs levies (Russian: tamozhnia). The tamga was embroidered on Central Asian tents, incorporated into rugs, filigreed into jewelry, struck into coins, and used as a cattle brand. A list of early tamgas is found in Kashgarli Mahmut's eleventh century work the Diwan Lugat at Turk. It provides, in part, the visual identification component of the membership in the polity." Paksoy, Basmachi


Tamosi, Myron.

  • Washington DC area rug collector.

  • Myron Tamosi

Tanavoli, Parviz.

Tang Dynasty

  • Tang (618 - 907)

  • Many Historians consider the Tang dynasty second only to the Han in importance. In the first half of the dynasty the empire expanded and China had one of it's great artistic periods. The Tang pushed beyond the Tarim Basin into Turkestan and occupied the Ferghana Valley. We can see the influence of this expansion in the funeral statuary of the Tang circa 700. Camels, Central Asians and Jewish peddlers are among the art found in the tombs of the Tang. This artistic expansion and Imperial expansion extended until 751 AD when the Chinese lost to Arab Moslems at the Battle of Talas. This was a crucial battle because it caused the Chinese to pull back. The loss of the outermost provinces weakened the Tang emperor Xuanzong. This brought on the rebellion of An Lushan which brought the Chinese borders back to the Great Wall and caused a gradual decline of Imperial power that lasted for 150 years. Even though the Arabs never pushed into the Tarim Basin the vacuum of power allowed the establishment of an Uigher Khanate in the Tarim Basin and a series of Persian and Turkish kingdoms to emerge in Turkestan.

Tanghe, Paul.

  • Tanghe, Paul. Djulchir, Tissus de Defense et de Protection ; Brussels: 1996?

Tani, Shah Nawaz.

  • Former Afghan General who led a small band of armed men from Pakistan into Afghanistan about November 3, 2001 in an attempt to raise his tribe against the Taliban. Afghan General Shah Nawaz Tani was the Afghan Army Chief of Staff and Gen. Abdul Wardak was second in command.

Tapper, Nancy Lindisfarne.

  • Has published as Nancy Tapper and Nancy Lindisfarne.Formerly married to Richard Tapper.

  • Tapper, Nancy Lindisfarne. Bartered brides : politics, gender, and marriage in an Afghan tribal society / Nancy Tapper. Cambridge [England] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1991. Series title: Cambridge studies in social and cultural anthropology ; 74

  • Tapper, Nancy Lindisfarne. (ED.) & Ingham, Bruce (ED.) LANGUAGES OF DRESS IN THE MIDDLE EAST. Curzon Press, 1997. (xvi, 196 p., b/w ills., notes, ind.

  • Lindisfarne, Nancy. Mihai I. Spariosu, editor DANCING IN DAMASCUS. Binghamton,: Suny 2000. A volume in the SUNY series.

  • Cornwall, A. and Lindisfarne-Tapper 1994 Dislocating Masculinities: Gender Studies and Anthropology London: Routledge HQ 1067

Tapper, Richard Lionel

Tarim Basin

  • An area of Western Red China that has been an important link between China and the west.


  • Rugman Tarom Persian Rug

  • Tarom: Tarom is a small village in Northern Iranís Gilan province. It is situated just east of Rashte. Each year, Tarom produces a fair amount of handmade Persian rugs. The quality in Tarom rugs is fairly good and they have been known to last a very long time. Tarom usually makes geometric styles, and floral patterns are rarely made. The rugs of Tarom are very close in appearance to the rugs of Zanjan. The semi-nomadic makers of these rugs weave these rugs in a very primitive and simple manner. The colors in a Tarom rug may be any combination of salmon, baby blue, and navy blue. Reds are very rarely seen in Tarom rugs.

  • Zanjan now boasts several towns such as the namesake provincial centre of Zanjan, Abhar, Khorramdarreh, Khodabandeh, Ijrud, Tarom and Mahneshan. Getting to know Zanjan province

  • TAKESTANI: a language of Iran, SIL code: TKS, ISO 639-2: ira

    Population 220,000.
    Region Various towns and villages in the mainly Azerbaijani-speaking region from Khalkhal to Saveh, especially in Takestan and villages to the south and southeast.
    Alternate names TAKISTANI
    Classification Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh.
    Comments Close to Talysh, especially Khalkhal dialect. Bilingualism in Farsi. Different from Tat of Russia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. Muslim. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=TKS

Tarzi, Zemaryalai.

  • Dr. Zemaryalai Tarzi, Former Director General of Afghan Institute of Archaeology.

  • Professor of Archaeology at USHS, Strasbourg, France.

  • Fiercely nationalistic Archaeologist.


  • Tasheh is a Persian word for grain sack typically Luri or Bahktiarri


  • "An "independent" Crimean Khanate dates to the 1430s." Paksoy, Crimean Tatars

  • "The Tatars, like other Turks in Chinggisid armies, practiced Shamanism." Paksoy, Crimean Tatars

  • "The Tatars had their first flirtation with Islam during the reign of the Chinggisid Berkei Khan (r. 1257-1267). However, Islam was not widely established until after the accession of Ozbeg (1313-1340)." It however was not a universal conversion and there remained pockets of Taoism and Shamanism for extended perods of time. Paksoy, Crimean Tatars

Tattersall, Creassey.

  • Tattersall, Creassey. The Carpets of Persia ; London: 1931.

Taushandjian, K. S.

  • In Oriental Carpet Design (page 281),  PRJ Ford suggests that the American Sarouk was originally produced by Mr. S. Tyriakian the Arak representative of K. S. Taushandjian of New York in the early 1920s

Taube, Jakob.

  • Taube, Jakob. Suzani, A Textile Art from Central Asia ; Munich: 1994.

Taylor, Maxwell

  • Taylor, Maxwell Hoopes. The Limits of Intervention. Pg. 22.

    • Consultant to President Kennedy

    • Co-author of the Taylor/Rostow Report.

      • Report called for increase in advisers both military and civilian (bIA).

      • Called for drastic build-up in Helicopter air mobility for the ARVN.

    • Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff 61 - 64.

    • Ambasador to South Viet Nam 1964 - 1965.

    • Consultant to President Johnson.

    • Head of the Institute of defence Analysis.

Taylor, R.

  • Taylor, R. Ottoman Embroidery. 1993,

Teflon Coating for Rugs,

  • Teflon Treatment of Rugs - Susan Sanders 07:22:56 6/29/98 (3)

    • Re: Teflon Treatment of Rugs - phil kellogg 13:19:34 6/30/98 (1)

      • Re: Teflon Treatment of Rugs - Nathan 06:28:36 7/01/98 (0)

    • Re: Teflon Treatment of Rugs - Nathan 08:24:40 6/29/98 (0)

  • Tehran


    Tenet, George

    Tent Band

    • There are both utilitarian and ones for special occasions.

    • Yomud Tent Band


    • Provincial capital of Uruzgan. Has a regional airport.

    Terrace, E.

    • Terrace, E. Egyptian Paintings of the Middle Kingdom The Tomb of Djehuty-Nekht. 1968, Braziller,

    Terry, Jon.

    Terrorist Groups

    The Terrorist Interdiction Program

    • The Terrorist Interdiction Program, led by the Department of State, is a computer-based system that allows the U.S. and its allies to interdict terrorists at international border points.

    Textile Museum

    Textile Museum Fighting Elephant Fragment

    • The Textile Museum Fighting Elephant Fragment was made in Lahore India circa 1630. The fragment was previously in the Sarre Collection but is now in the collection of the Textile Museum Washington, DC.

    • Lahore India, circa 1630 (+ or - 15 years).

    • Mughal Fighting Elephant Fragment

    • Textile Museum: Rugs and Textiles of Late Imperial China ; Washington: 1994.


    • Textiles. 1959, Dover,

    Tezcan, Hulye.

    • Tezcan, Hulye. The Topkapi Saray Museum: Carpets. Boston: Little, Brown/NYGS 1987.

    Thackston, Wheeler.

    • Wheeler M. Thackston Jr. is Professor of the Practice of Persian and other Near East Languages at Harvard University He has taught Persian and Arabic at Harvard for over twenty years. 

    • Professor Wheeler Thackston is a highly regarded expert on the Persian language and has been a key resource for many of the world's top Islamic scholars. Thackston is translator of numerous works including a very nice translation of the Baburnama.

    • Babur, Zahiruddin Muhammad. Baburnama

    Thacher, Amos Bateman.

    • Thacher was a member of the Hajji Baba and an important early author on Turkmen rugs. Good friend of Joseph V. McMullan .

    • The Rugs of Amos Bateman Thacher, by George W. O'Bannon, Oriental Rug Review, Vol. 8/2, December/January, 1988

    • Thacher, Amos. Turkoman Rugs ; London: 1940.

    • Thacher, Amos. Turkoman Rugs ; London: 1940. 155 pp., 1977/8 reprint,

    • Thacher, Amos. Turkoman Rugs ; NY: 1940.

    Ther, U.

    • Ther, U. Floral Messages From Ottoman Court Embroideries to Anatolian Trousseau Chests. 1993,

    Thomas, Edward,

    • Thomas, Edward, "On the Coins of the Kings of Ghazni," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. ix, 1848, pp. 275-6.

    Thomas, P.

    • Thomas, P. Oriental Rugs. 1996,

    Thomas, T.K.

    • Thomas, T.K. Textiles From Medieval Egypt. A.D. 300 - 1300. 1990,

    Thompson, F.P.

    • Thompson, F.P. TAPESTRY. MIRROR OF HISTORY. 1980,

    Thompson, Jon MD

    • Dr. Jon Thompson has been one of the most important scholar/dealers, particularly in the study of Turkoman rugs. The present state of the field certainly bears the mark of his scholarship.

    • Studied medicine at Cambridge and practiced medicine in London UK.

    • Edited English edition of A.A. Bogolyubov, "Carpets of Central Asia: Basingstoke, 1975. (General Andrei Andreevich Bogolyubov)

    • Central Asian Carpets with J. Lefevre, London, 1976.

    • Turkish Carpets, with J. Lefevre, London, 1977.

    • Caucasian Carpets, with J. Lefevre, London, 1977.

    • Persian Carpets, with J. Lefevre, London, 1977.

    • Thompson also authored one of the very best introductory rug books Thompson, Jon. Oriental Carpets .

    • Mackie, Louise & Thompson, Jon. Turkmen Imreli

    • Thompson, J. Silk, Carpets and the Silk Road. 1988,

    • Selections from the Thompson Oriental Carpet Sale.

    • "Salor Design: Its Place In the Turkmen Tradition". Washington DC: ICOC 1980.

    • Thompson, Jon The Sarre Mamluk. Lefevre, London. 1980

    Thompson, W. Kenneth.

    Thorau, Peter.

    • Thorau, Peter. "Syrien und Palästina: Die Kreuzfahrerstaaten im 13. Jahrhundert" Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients; B VIII 10. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 1989.

    • Thorau, Peter. "Zur Geschichte der Mamluken und ihrer Erforschung" in Die Welt des Orients. Vol. 20-21. 1989-1990. 227-240.

    • Thorau, Peter. "Review of The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517, by Peter M. Holt" in Die Welt des Orients. Vol. 18. 1987. 214-215.

    • Thorau, Peter. "Die Burgen der Assassinen in Syrien und ihre Einnahme durch Sultan Baibars" in Die Welt des Orients. Vol. 18. 1987. 132-158.

    • Thorau, Peter. "The Battle of `Ayn Jalut: A Reexamination" in Crusade and Settlement: Papers Read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East and Presented to R.. C. Smail. Edbury, Peter W. (edited by). Cardiff: University College Cardiff Press, 1985. 236-241.

    • Thorau, Peter. Sultan Baibars I. von Ägypten: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Vorderen Orients im 13. Jahrhundert. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients; Reihe B (Geisteswissenschaften), 63. Wiesbaden: L. Reichert, 1987.

    • Thorau, Peter. The Lion of Egypt: Sultan Baybars I and the Near East in the Thirteenth Century. London and New York: Longman, 1992.

    Thorp, R.L.

    • Thorp, R.L. Son of Heaven. 1988,

    The Throne Verse

    • From the Koran Verse 255 of Sura 2 is known as the Ayah Al-Kursee or "The Throne Verse".

      "Allah! There is no god but He, the Living, the self subsisting, Eternal. No slumber can seize him, nor sleep. His are all things in the heavens and on the earth. Who can intercede in His presence except as He permiteth. He knoweth What (appeareth to His creatures as) before or after or behind them. Nor shall they compass ought of His knowledge except as He willeth. His Throne doth extend over the heavens and the earth, and He feeleth no fatigue in guarding and preserving them, for He is the Most High, The Supreme (in glory)". The Holqy Quran'n And The Ethical World Order

      This verse is a popular declaration of faith and appears in other works of Islamic Art including the 16th century Indjoudjian Inscribed Spiral Arabesque Niche Rug (attributed by Michael Franses to Central Persia, circa 1575 http://www.textile-art.com/tg/17724.html)

    • A Lustre-Decorated Kashan 13th C. Star Tile

    Thurman, C.C.M.

    • Thurman, C.C.M. Textiles in the Art Museum of Chicago. 1992,


    Tietzel, Brigitte

    • Tietzel, B. Persiche seiden. 1988,

    • Persische seiden des 16.-18. Jahrhunderts aus dem Besitz des Deutschen Textilmuseums Krefeld. Krefeld. 1988

    Tiffany Studios.

    • Tiffany Studios. The Tiffany Studios Collection OF Antique Chinese Rugs. 1908,

    • Tiffany Studios. Antique Chinese Rugs. 1969 reprint (2nd printing, 1970) of the 1908 ed.,

    • Tiffany Studios: Antique Chinese Rugs ; Rutland, Vt.: 1908. 96 pp., (1976 reprint),


    Tilden, Jill,

    • Tilden, Jill, Deputy Editor, Hali The International Magazine of Antique Carpet and Textile Art.

    Timmerman, Kenneth.

    • Kenneth Timmerman is a former Time magazine reporter. His mix of great writing, solid investigation and right wing fringe activism tends to marginalize his work. Ken needs to decide if he is a journalist or a politician. Timmerman ran unsuccessfully for US Senator from Maryland losing convincingly in the Republican Primary.

    • Timmerman is a frequent guest on Don Kroah’s right wing talk radio program. Kroah's show is vaguely Christian but primarily a front for the Republican party.

    • Review - Selling out America


    • Timur was born in Kesh (Shahr-i-Sabz) in 1336.

    • Timur was a kinsman to Cinggis Qan and hereditary member of the clan Barulas. He was both Mongol as a Barulas and also a Chagatai Turk as a member of the Chagatai Horde.

    • A destructive conqueror who ravaged the Islamic world.


    • A dialect of Chahar Aimaq. In former times a component tribe of the Chahar Aimaq.

    • In the first quarter of the sixteenth century the Timurid leadership was squeezed out of Khorasan by the Uzbeks to the north and the Safavids to the west. The leadership left to Turkey or India but the some of the Timurid Aymaqs stayed. One of these were the Timuri.

    • They were later confederated with several other Aymaqs into the Chahar Aymaqs.

    • The Timuri primarily lived in the Herat area until 1857 when the tribe moved into Persian Khorasan.

    • Guide to Timuri Rugs


    Titley, Norah M.

    Khan Tokhtamysh

    • Khan Tokhtamysh (1376-95)

    • In 1380 Khan Tokhtamysh (1376-95) the hereditary ruler of the White Horde merges with the Golden Horde.(To eventually gain control over both.)

    • 1382 the Golden Horde under Khan Tokhtamysh sacks and burns Moscow.

    • Tokhtamysh allied with Timur, to reasserted Mongol power in Russia.

    • Finnally the alliance with Timur breaks causing Timur to destroys the Golden Horde capital of Sarai Berke and occupy Moscow.

    Togan, Zeki Velidi.

    • A Baskurt-Turk. Paksoy, Basmachi

    • Togan Memoirs:

    • Togan, Zeki Velidi.Turk and Tatar History (Turk ve Tatar Tarihi). Kazan: 1911. Paksoy, Basmachi

    • Professor Zeki Velidi Togan (1890-1970) was a professor of history for over half a century. He taught and earned academic degrees and rank in the institutions of higher learning on three continents, including the U.S. Early in his career, Togan had been a principal leader of the Turkistan National Liberation Movement in Central Asia (1916- 1930s).Paksoy, Basmachi

    • Togan conducted research trips for both the Archeology and Ethnography Society of Kazan University and the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences, jointly with International Central Asia Research Society, Paksoy, Basmachi

    • Author of nearly four hundred individual books and articles in at least five languages.Paksoy, Basmachi

    • Togan Memoires:

    • Togan Memoires: Part Two

    • Togan Memoirs: Part Three

    • Togan Memories Part Four

    Toiv, Barry

    • Barry Toiv served as Deputy White House Press Secretary under President Clinton. Toiv placed Monica Lewinsky with President Clinton which allowed Lewinsky to seduce the President. Toiv is a likely candidate to be the Mossad mole in the White House dubbed the "Mega Mole" in the press. I once discussed Toiv with Bob Hanson who was in Counter Intelligence in the FBI prior to his arrest. Toiv lived in Tacoma Park Montgomery County Maryland in a small town that declared itself a nuclear free zone.




    Topalian, Malcom,

    • The late Malcom Topalian was one of New York's most respected antique carpet dealers. 3rd generation dealer who was widely respected for his expertise and integrity.

    Topalian, Mark,

    • Topalian is one of New York's most respected antique carpet dealers. Auction expert and restorer known for knowledge and integrity.

    Topham, John M.

    Topkapi Palace

    Topkapi Palace Museum

    • For information regarding the museum, Telephone: 90-212-5120480

    • Museum hours are 9:30 am - 5:00 pm.

    • Topkapi Palace is closed on Tuesdays.

    • Harem section can be visited only by a guided tour and tickets should be purchased separetely.

      • Entrance fares:

        • Between about $3 and $5 depending on the exchange rate.

        • Turkish students and soldiers : Free

        • Entrance fare for the Harem section:

          • Additional $2 (Only guided tours are allowed in Harem section.)

      • Contact address for researchers :
        Kultur Bakanligi Anitlar ve Muzeler Genel Mudurlugu,
        II. Meclis Binasi, 06100, Ulus, Ankara.
        Telephone: 90-312-3104960
        Fax: 90-312-3111417
        Internet: http://www.kultur.gov.tr

      • Comments to history@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    • http://www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/topkapi.html

    Tora Bora

    • The Al Qaeda training base at Tora Bora has the most extensive cave and tunnel networks in Afghanistan. The base is in the eastern White Mountain range near the Pakistan border.


    • Usually a pile faced rectangular bag open on the long side that is smaller in size than a Juval. Normally made and used by Turkmen.

    Torchia, Robert Wilson

    • Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue
      American Paintings of the Nineteenth Century, Part II
      Robert Wilson Torchia, with Deborah Chotner and Ellen G. Miles, 1998

    • Robert Wilson Torchia received his Ph.D. in art history from the University of Pennsylvania in 1989. He is a specialist in American art of the late eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, and has a strong secondary field in oriental rugs and textiles. He is the author of John Neagle: Philadelphia Portrait Painter (1989), The Smiths: A Family of Philadelphia Artists (1998), and American Paintings of the Nineteenth Century, Volume II, The Collection of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue (1998), and a number of articles on such noted American artists as Thomas Eakins, Joshua Johnson, and Thomas Sully. He is particularly interested in American art in Florida, and has written A Florida Legacy: Thomas Moran's Ponce de Leon in Florida (1998), and Ernst Conrad Kasten: Palatka Expressionist (1999). Lost Colony: The Artists of St. Augustine, 1930-1950; essay by Robert W. Torchia

    • Decorative Arts, Part II: Far Eastern Ceramics and Paintings
      By: Virginia Bower, Josephine Hadley Knapp, Stephen Little, Robert Wilson Torchia (Contributor) 2002
      Decorative Arts, Part II: Far Eastern Ceramics and Paintings; Persian and Indian Rugs and Carpets (Collections of the National Gallery of Art.)

      From the Publisher

      Decorative Arts
      Part II: Far Eastern Ceramics and Paintings; Persian and Indian Rugs and Carpets
      VIRGINIA BOWER, JOSEPHINE HADLEY KNAPP, Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, STEPHEN LITTLE, Art Institute of Chicago, and ROBERT WILSON TORCHIA
      With contributions by JUDY OZONE and WILLIAM SARGENT

      This volume explores a group of the Gallery's decorative arts, mainly drawn from the renowned collections of the Widener and Steele families. The focus of the catalogue is on the collection of Chinese ceramics, which ranges from earthenware and stoneware to polychrome procelain, with a concentration on pieces from the Qing dynasty (1644-1722). The carpets from Lynnewood Hall, P.A.B. Widener's home in Pennsylvania, are also catalogued and published here for the first time.

      360 pp.; 263 color and 7 b/w plates; 0-89468-252-0

    Toueir, Kassem.

    • Toueir, Kassem. "Céramiques mameloukes à Damas" in BEO. Vol. 26. 1973. 209-217.

    Trabelsi, Nizar.

    • Nizar Trabelsi is active with al-Qaeda. Former Tunisian soccer player he trained in al-Qaeda terrorist training camps in Afghanistan with Djamel Beghal.

    • Beghal and Trabelsi studied under fundamentalist Muslim cleric Abou Qatada at the Regent's Park mosque in central London.

    Train, John.

    • Train, John. Oriental Rug Symbols ; London: 1997.


    • Literally Across the Oxus. This is the land north and east of the Amu Darya river. Also known as Turan or Turkestan.

    • Transoxiana is English for Mavara'onnahr or Mawarennahr which means land beyond the river. This was the name for the land in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya river drainage. Spuler, Bertold. The Mongols in History. Page 12 note. 

    Transylvanian Rugs

    • Notes on Transylvanian Rugs

    • Transylvanian Rugs a group of Ottoman rugs that were found in Transylvanian Churches in Eastern Europe. Some feel that they were Anatolian in origin and got to Transylvania as trade goods. Once there they were donated to Churches. The other main school of thought was that they were local to Transylvania. Charles Grant Ellis championed this second opinion. These rugs are sometimes called Siebenburgen rugs after the Seven Mountain region in which they were found.

    • On my team at State department we had a Transylvanian. He mentioned that there was rug weaving in the region as he grew up.

    • See Beattie for paper.

    Traxler, Mark.

    Treasure Train

    Trench, Lucy.


    Trilling, J.

    • Trilling, J. The Roman Heritage. Textiles From Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean 300 TO 600 AD. 1982,

    • Trilling, J., Hattox, R., & Markrich, L. AEGEAN CROSSROADS. 1983,

    Trimbacher, Peter.

    • Trimbacher, P. Turkische Handweberei /Turkish Handweaving. 1983,

    • Trimbacher, P. von: Turkish Handweaving, Anniversary of the Siege of Plankenstein ; Austria: 1983.

    • Trimbacher, Peter et al.: Antique Anatolian Carpets from Austrian Collections ; Wien: 1983.

    • Butterweck, G., Kryza-Gersch, F., Neuber, E., Roth, F.O., Stanzer, W., & Trimbacher, P. Antique Anatolian Carpets

    Troost, Klaus.

    • Troost, Klaus. Die Yomut (Turkoman Tribes-The Yomud) ; Dusseldorf: 1983.

    • Troost, Klaus. Muster in Teppichen de Terkmenen (Rug Designs of the Turkomans and Their Neighbors) ; Dusseldorf: (1983)

    Troll, Siegfried

    • 1937 Damaskus-Teppiche, Ars Islamica, vol. 4, pp. 201-31.

    Trotsky, Leon.

    • Trotsky whose real name was Lev Davydovich Bronstein.

    • Son of a prosperous Russian Jewish farmer.

    • Second most powerful Russian under Lenin

    • Max Forrester Eastman served as Trotsky's literary agent in the United States, and translated some of his works. EASTMAN MSS.

    • Efraim Sklyansky was Trotsky's right-hand man.

    • Trotsky was helpful to Armand Hammer in setting up his concessions in Soviet Russia in the 1920s.

    • Leon Trotsky's My Life

    • As a Jewish Bolshevik Trotsky was close with the Jewish leadership of the Communist Government during Lenin (a fellow Jew) years. After the death of Lenin, Trotsky was forced out and Stalin purges started in part to purge the Lenin Trotsky Jewish clique. Armand Hammer was also a part of the Jewish Bolshevik clique but he was smart enough to get out of Russia with his money by 1930.

    Tsagareli, N.

    • Tsagareli, N. Georgian Decorative Thick Felt ; Tbilisi: 1972.

    Tsareva, Elena.

    • see Tzareva, Elena

    Tschebull, Raoul (Mike).

    Tschepelewezkajc, G.L.

    • Tschepelewezkajc, G.L. and O. A. Sucharewa: Susani Usbekistens ; Hamburg: 1991.

    Tsunoyama, Y.

    • Tsunoyama, Y. Textiles of the Andes. Catalog of the Amano Collection. 1979, Heian/Dohosha,



    • A Central Asian wild flower which has been cultivated for hundreds of years. About 120 varieties are found in the wild.


    • City in Khorasan now called Firdaus, Iran. site of an important Seljuk era (12th century) madrassa.

    Tunsch, Thomas.

    • "Beziehungen in Der Komposition und Ornamentik Mamlukischer Bucheinbande und Teppiche". Hamburg/Berlin ICOC7 1993.

    Turabi, Hassan.

    • Hassan Turabi is the Moslem leader of the Sudan who has been waging war on Christians.


    • Turan is an old name but very descriptive for the land of Islamic Persian/Turkic Asia. Many people call this Transoxiana but I do not like that name since Turan has existed on both sides of of the Oxus (Amu Darya). Herat has certainly been a key city for Turan depending on the years and the whims of political and military fortune.

    Turck, U.

    • Turck, U. Anatolische Kelim Im Schloss Lembeck / Anatolian Kileims in Schloss Lembeck. 1995,

    Turker, I. & S.

    • Turker, I. & S. Kostbarkeiten Orientaischer Teppichknupfkunst.   Vol. IV, 1977, 272 p.,

    • Turker, I. and S.: Kostbarkeiten Orientalischer Teppich Knupfkunst Band 5 ; Karlsruhe: 1978.


    Turki Al-Faisal

    • Also: Prince Turki bin Faycal

    • Prince Turki Al-Faisal is a son of former Saudi King Faisal, who was assassinated in 1975.

    • Former head of Saudi Arabian Intelligence. Do not confuse with Prince Turki Bin Saud of the Sudieri Seven

    • Three months after the missile strikes two luxury jets landed at Kandahar air base. One brought Prince Turki al Faisal, bin Laden's student friend and the head of Saudi Arabia's security services. The second was empty. It was there to take bin Laden back to Riyadh.

      Prince Turki, who had been crucial in getting millions of dollars of official aid for the Taliban, went straight to Mullah Omar's residence where a magnificent lunch had been laid out. The prince began to lecture the Taliban leader about his ingratitude to his former benefactors. In the middle of his tirade Omar took a water jug from an attendant and emptied it over his head.

      'I nearly lost my temper,' he told the astonished prince. 'Now I am calm. I will ask you a question and then you can leave. How long has the royalty of Saudi Arabia been the hired help of the Americans?' Lunch went uneaten and the second plane returned to Riyadh empty. Shortly afterwards bin Laden pledged allegiance to Mullah Omar and recognised him formally as amir ul momineen - leader of the faithful. His fate and that of the Taliban were now inextricably linked.

    • Turki was supposed to have had this argument with Omar November of 1996. Witnesses place him hunting in Afghanistan after this supoosed fight.
      "For years, Persian Gulf state elites hunted rare birds of prey, houbara bustards, in the bleak hills surrounding Kandahar. In the late 1990s, according to former U.S. and Afghan officials, a number of prominent Persian Gulf state officials and businessmen flew into Kandahar on state and private jets for secret hunting expeditions.

      For days at a time, the hunters would roam the hills, releasing falcons trained to catch the bustards. Some satisfied hunters heaped donations on their Taliban hosts, officials said--and on Al Qaeda leaders who occasionally joined them.

      Among the reported visitors were high-ranking UAE and Saudi government ministers. According to U.S. and former Afghan civil air officials, the hunters included Prince Turki al Faisal, son of the late Saudi King Faisal." http://www.spongobongo.com/her9939.htm

    Turkistan National Liberation Movement

    • "The Movement possessed an elaborate high level intelligence gathering organization, military units, education department, historical roots and precedence. It could be said that if it was not for the intervention of the Second World War, the movement would not have been extinguished in its outward form. At least two monuments in the former Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan suggest continued military clashes between the Turkistan National Liberation Movement forces and the Red Army well into the 1930s."Paksoy, Basmachi

    Turkish Islamic Arts Museum.

    • Turkish Islamic Arts Museum. Samples of Old Turkish Carpets and Kilims ; Istanbul: 1961.


    • Guide to Turkmen Rugs & Carpets

    • First mention of Turkmen (al Turk-maniyun) by Makdisi in the 10th century. He used the term to refer to the Oghuz and the Karluks. The Oghuz were located near Isfijab in the mid Syr Darya region. Krader, Central Asia. Page 57.

    • Mahmud al-Kashgari refers to Oghuz and Karluks as Turkmen in the 11th century. . Krader, Central Asia. Page 57.

    • The Oghuz adopted Islam in the 10th century under a leader named Seljuk. Krader, Central Asia. Page 57.

    • Turkman began to be used to mean Oghuz exclusively in the 11 century by Gardizi and Baihaqi. Krader, Central Asia. Page 58.

    • Turkman and Trukhmens split in 1680 with the Trukhmens moving into the North Caucasus. Krader, Central Asia. Page 58.

    • In the 18th and 19th centuries the Turkmen gained power as the Persians lost power in the region. Krader, Central Asia. Page 97.

    Turkmen of Iran

    • Guide to Turkmen Rugs & Carpets

    • In the census of 1991 the Turkmen of Iran are:

      • About 1 million in number.

      • "their biggest towns and cities are Gonbad Kavus, which is the center of Turkman Sahra, Bandar Turkman, Aq-Qala, and Gomishan."

      • "The Turkmans are an ethnic minority who speak the Turkish language with the eastern Oghoz accent. The same dialect is spoken in the Republic of Turkmenistan."

      • Divided between the Koklan (Gocklin) and the Yamotes (Yamud).

      • "The Kuklans have six branches, and live in the central and eastern Turkman Sahra."

      • The Yamud have two parts; the Atabai and Jaafarbai.

      • Most Turkmen are Hanafi Sunni Moslem but some are Sufi of the Naqshbandieh order

      • Source http://www.persian.com/aboutiran/demographic.htm


    • Guide to Turkmen Rugs & Carpets

    • A major tribal confederation of Turkic people was the Oghuz Confederation. Later it split and those who lived in Turkey and Azerbaijan are best called Turkoman as opposed to those who stayed in Central Asia who are the Turkmen.

    • I use Turkoman as a term for the Northern and Southern Azerbaijanis. '

    • 10th century First mention of Turkmen (al Turk-maniyun) by Makdisi in the 10th century. He used the term to refer to the Oghuz and the Karluks. The Oghuz were located near Isfijab in the mid Syr Darya region. Krader, Central Asia. Page 57.

    • The Oghuz adopted Islam in the 10th century under a leader named Seljuk. Krader, Central Asia. Page 57.

    • Early 11th century. Early 11th century first Turkic incursions in Armenia. Wagstaff Landscapes Page 184.

    • 11th century Mahmud al-Kashgari refers to Oghuz and Karluks as Turkmen in the 11th century. . Krader, Central Asia. Page 57.

    • Turkman began to be used to mean Oghuz exclusively in the 11 century by Gardizi and Baihaqi. Krader, Central Asia. Page 58.

    Turkmenforschung. Vol 15.

    • Turkmenforschung. Vol 15. The Art of Oriental Carpets. International Symposium on the Art of Oriental Carpets, Sept. 19, ?


    • A part of the Former Soviet Union, Turkmenistan is north of Iran and Afghanistan and east of the Caspian sea. The population is primarily Turkman Muslim with minorities of Uzbek and Tadjiks.


    • The republic of Turkey was founded in October 29, 1923 as a successor state to the Ottoman empire. The capitol is Ankara.

    • Guide to Turkish Rugs & Carpets

    Turkhan, Kudret H.

    • Azeri Turk & carpet dealer

    • Member of the Topkapi Museum Society

    • Turkhan, Kudret H.; ed. by Lynne Thornton ISLAMIC RUGS Frederick A. Praeger New York (1969) 

    Tuttle, Don.

    • A leading American photographer of Oriental rugs.

    • "Photographing Rugs" Santa Monica: ACOR 3, 1996. Don Tuttle

    • "Shoot Your Own Rugs" Denver: ACOR4 Focus Session, 1998.

    Tyriakian, S.

    Tyson, David.

    Tyson, Michael.


    Tzareva, Elena

    • Elena Tzareva is a wonderful person whose brilliance is only matched by her incredible warmth, wit, and charm.

    • Curator, Russian Ethnographic Museum, St. Petersburg

    • Articles

      • 1994 Suzanis of Central Asia, Eothen: Jahreshefte der Gesellschaft der Freunde Islamischer Kunst und Kultur, (trans. from Russian), 2./3. Jahrgang, 1991/92, Editio Maris, Munich, pp. 63-80.

    • Books:

      • Tzareva, R.: Rugs and Carpets from Central Asia ; Vienna: 1984.

      • Tsareva, Elena. Carpets of Central Asian Nomads ; Genova: 1993.

      • Tzareva, Elena. Rugs and Carpets from Central Asia: The Turkomans, the Uzbeks, the Karakalpaks, the Kirghiz, the Kazakhs, the Baluch. Aurora Art Publishers, Leningrad.

    • On-Line Book:

    J. Barry O'Connell Jr.

    Copyright Barry O'Connell 2004 - 2007.
    Last revised: March 24, 2009.

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