Nazmiyal Antique Rugs
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Barry OConnell, Notes on Oriental rugs Barry OConnell, Notes on Oriental rugs Barry OConnell, Notes on Oriental rugs
Rug Notes Index - U


Persian Rugs the O'Connell Guides

Tabriz Rugs

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The Qashqai and Qashqai Rugs

Veramin Rugs

Tribal Rugs












Becoming Missional

Hagop Manoyan Antique RugsNazmiyal Antique Rugs
Rug Notes Index - U


  • A Turkic people who live on the western border of China. They made it all the was into Europe in the Middle Ages and remain in the folk culture as the Ogres.

  • The Uighers had a written language at the time of Cingis Qan and the Mongols adopted the Uigher script for Mongol.

  • 1209: The Uigher tribe comes into the Mongol confederation. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times

Ulugh Beg

  • Ulugh Beg 1407-49
  • After the death of Shah Rukh, Ulugh Beg takes power and moves the capitol to Samarkand.
  • Artistic patron and astronomer. Builder of important observatory.


  • Ulus refers to the land and people controlled by the Il.
  • See Tribe

Umetalieva, B.T.

  • Umetalieva, B.T. et al. The Arts of the Kirghiz. Hamburg: 1985.

Unger, Edmund de.

  • Unger, Edmund de. "The Silk Mamluk" in Hali. Vol. 31, 8/iii. 1986. 8-9; 102.
  • Unger, Edmund de. "An Ancestor of the Mamluk Carpets" in Hali. Vol. 5. 1982-83. 44-46.
  • Unger, Edmund de. "The Origin of the Mamluk Carpet Design" in Hali. Vol. 2. 1979. 321-322.
  • Friday 30 May 1997 Spiritual Masterpieces to go on Sale
    by Dalya Alberge

    A magnificent collection of medieval enamels, arguably the world's finest in private hands, is coming onto the market and could fetch more than £16 million.

    Exquisite caskets, crosses and candlesticks from the 12th to 14th centuries are among 160 treasures that once adorned abbeys, churches and cathedrals throughout Europe. Nothing like this collection, amassed for a Swiss foundation by Edmund de Unger, a Hungarian barrister who came to Britain in 1949, has appeared on the market for more than 25 years.

    Some dealers and curators believe that the sheer number of outstanding pieces even overshadows the Victoria and Albert's Thomas ŗ Becket casket, which dates from the same period and which fetched £4.18 million at auction last year. Many of Mr de Unger's pieces bear the same Limoges craftsmanship.

    The Keir Collection, so-called because he once lived in a Wimbledon house with that name, will be sold by Sotheby's in New York in November. The treasures include a delicate 1220s Virgin and Child statuette carried as an icon in battle against the Moors; an 1180s plaque from a metre-high cross that relates to two pieces in the British Library and one in the Vatican; and a 1200s gable-shaped plaque representing two martyred saints from a chasse which is linked to an exhibit at the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge. Sotheby's said it must originally have contained relics of the Four Crowned Martyrs.

    Looking at the 1180s plaque, which depicts two angels, Mr de Unger said: "One of the beauties of medieval art is it's a spiritual art. Nothing sensual, which appeals to me. It has a harmony, a serenity, a silent dignity. It mirrors the belief of the people of the Middle Ages. We don't believe in anything. The age of belief is gone."

    He said the collection was being sold because such pieces no longer appeared on the market. "Unless you can continue the collection and add to it, it becomes a dead, static collection."

    Collecting was a disease, he said, but it was "the hunt" that most excited him. The idea of owning objects did not interest him, partly because his family lost everything in Hungary. He said that his treatment at the hands of the Communists ≠ he was imprisoned several times ≠ and his subsequent escape was too painful to discuss.

    He would not reveal anything about the foundation, the Dominate in Zurich, beyond that it was private and owned properties. He said that it had approached him after he discovered an important 15th-century Italian drawing. He began collecting at the age of 10; at 15, he bought a spectacular 14th-century carpet for just £4: "It is one of only nine in Turkey and two in Europe."

    He added: "I read a lot and go to museums. You can develop an eye. But you must be born with an eye."

    He explained that he used to contact the Foundation if he spotted something he thought was worth buying. He dismissed the suggestion that he was a dealer "because a dealer has stock"; instead, his career was as a barrister specialising in international law. He added that the sale proceeds might go to charity.

    He was buying treasures when the rest of the art world showed relatively little interest. He sees himself as the saviour of many of the pieces: "The objects speak to you. They were crying out, 'Please rescue us.' I rescued many things."

    Elizabeth Wilson, of Sotheby's, said: "This is an incredibly important collection. There isn't another with that number of objects. Such an amazing variety. There are objects in every category. Incense boats, chasses or reliquaries, plaques, candlesticks, crucifixes."

    Part of the collection was lent to the British Library from 1981 to 1982. Its curator, Neil Stratford, described the quality as remarkable: "It has some really wonderful pieces in it. The great strength of the collection is in the Limoges, although there are some other very good pieces."

    The bulk of the collection was put together in the 1950s and 1960s by Ernst and Martha Kofler-Truniger, of Lucerne, who had at one time also owned the Becket casket. In 1971 Mr de Unger acquired those holdings for a seven-figure sum in a private sale and then continued adding to it.

    Charles Truman, a leading antiques dealer, said: "Without doubt, it is the most important collection of medieval enamels to come on the market since the Kofler-Truniger sale." http://www.churchnet.org.uk/news/files/news433.htm

United Front

United States Central Command

  • The United States Central Command oversees American military operations from the Indian Ocean to the Red Sea It is located at MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa, Fla.


  • A U.S. oil company that did busiess with Taliban as Taliban was taking over Afghanistan. Unocal wanted Taliban help in securing a secure pipeline route from Central Asia.
  • While at Cambridge Energy Research Associates key Bush advisor Zalmay Khalilzad consulted to Unocal during their dealings with with the Taliban. Afghan Roots Keep Adviser Firmly in the Inner Circle


  • A dialect of Persian that derives from the fusion of Persian Turkish and Hindi in Sultanate and Mughal India. The name comes to us from the Mongol word for camp.
  • 12th & 13th century A common language grew between the Moslem leaders and their Hindu subjects which we now know as Urdu. Rawlinson, INDIAN ART. Page 32

Usman, Mohammed.

  • Mohammed Usman was a third secretary in the Taliban's Foreign Ministry. When he left Taliban he took a satellite telephone and is now working for the King setting up meetings with tribal leaders.

`Uthman, Muhammad `Abd al-Sattar.

  • `Uthman, Muhammad `Abd al-Sattar. "Dawr al-Muslimin fi Sina`at al-Aqlam" in Dirasat Athariyah Islamiyah. Vol. 4. 1990. 171-194.


  • The Uzbek are an offshoot of the Mongol Golden Horde that conquered Russia in the thirteenth century. Cingis Qan (Ghengis Khan) died in 1227 and his empire was divided up in the great Quraltai of 1229. Jochi the eldest son was given the land furthest from the hearth, but since he had died his heirs led by Berke took from the Caucasus north into Russia and they were known as the Golden Horde. The Golden Horde or Kipchaks were led by Batu and Berke. Their younger brother Shayban, who gained acclaim in the Mongolian invasion of Hungary" split off and established the Shaybanid Horde.
  • A later Shaybanid Khan named Uzbek converted to Islam and the horde became known as the Uzbeks. In the later part of the 15th century the Shaybanid Horde moved into Transoxiana (Turan) and by 1505 the Uzbeks pushed the Chagatai Turks or Timurids out and took the land they still inhabit today.
  • The subjugated peoples of that area primarily Sart and Turkic have been absorbed into the Uzbek. Linguistically Uzbek is a Turkic language. Uzbeks weave both pile and flatweave. Much of Uzbek production I feel is incorrectly labeled as Turkmen.
  • Modern Uzbek Tribal Structure by H.B. Paksoy

  • Ninety-two Tribe Uzbek - 04/08/2000

  • Togan, Z.V., The Origins of the Kazaks and the ‘zbeks, edited and translated by H.B. Paksoy

  • Uzbek Rugs
  • Uzbek Julkhyr
  • Uzbek Napramach
  • Suzani
  • Nurata Suzani
  • Shakhrisabz Suzani


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