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Barry OConnell, Notes on Oriental rugs Barry OConnell, Notes on Oriental rugs Barry OConnell, Notes on Oriental rugs
Rug Notes Index - Y
Hagop Manoyan Antique RugsNazmiyal Antique Rugs


Rug Notes Index - Y
Yalameh Rugs
  • Discussion - Yalameh Rugs - 02/20/2000
  • One goal of the Pahlavid dynasty was the forced settlement of tribes (mostly Turkic) and their assimilation into a Persian culture. This resulted in new rug types. Yalameh was one of those groups. The group borrows from Kashqai, Afshar, Khamseh and Lur weaving. Because the weavers are now settled in villages they use larger better looms producing rugs up to 6 by 10 that are finer then typical for older rugs from that region. Wool also was a factor in the change. since the settlement separated the weaving families from a grazing life settle the weaver is now likely to buy her wool in the local market. The use of finer mill-spun yarn allows for finer rugs, thinner yarn makes smaller knots. Colors have changed as well. For instance yellow and green are seen more frequently now since the weavers are buying commercially dyed yarn they have access to colors that were more difficult previously. This whole process is very similar to what happened with the Timuri in Khorasan about 100 years ago. The Timuri weavers when they settled wove larger more technically precise rugs with a greater color range.
  • W&W Yalameh rug, C. 1930-50 lot 7

Yanai, Yigal.

  • Yanai, Yigal. Suzani, Central Asian Embroideries ; Tel Aviv: 1986.

Yarshater, Ehsan

  • Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.), Encyclopaedia Iranica, (London: 1982 et seq.)

Yassavoli, Djavad ed.

  • Yassavoli, Djavad ed. An Introduction to Persian Carpets, A Survey of the Carpet-Weaving Industry of Persia ; Tehran:


Ydema, Onno.

Yellow Rain

  • In the Vietnam War and in the Afghan war, villagers from remote areas told of the yellow rain. Yellow rain is an anaerobic toxin, that is initially yellow and then turns to white powder. Yellow rain is harmless by the second day and can not be traced so even though we know it exists and that it was in Soviet arsenals from the late 1960's on, proving it was used is almost impossible.
  • Afghan War Rugs

Yeremian, Georges.

  • Georges Yeremian is one of the top carpet dealers in Toronto, Ontario. He is well known for his involvement with the Armenian Rug Society. Mr. Yeremian is a gentleman, someone whose opinions I respect.
  • Rug & Carpet Dealers Outside The U.S.
  • Re: Quest for a Serafian Rug

Yetkin, S.

  • Yetkin, Serare. Historical Turkish Carpets. 1981,
  • Yetkin, Serare. Early Caucasian Carpets in Turkey. London: 1978.
  • Yetkin, S. : Some new Figural Stucco and Stone relief Found RK Konya. On appraisal of their place in Turkish kind in Anatolia. Vol. 2 of Documents of the Vl. Internal. Congress for Turkish Art Munich, 3. to 7.Sept.1979. Given change of H.G. Majer, K. Kreiser, M. Restle and J. Zick Zick-Nissen, 3 volumes with 671 sides text and 590 fig. Munich 1987. ISBN: 3-925801-00-6



  • Wing bones from large birds have been found in Archeological digs in Kurdistan dating back 10,800 years. Izady speculates a connection to the Cult of Angels religions of the Kurds. Izady, The Kurds. Pg. 21.

  • Since Peacocks are not native to Kurdistan or the Caucasus Izady speculates that the so-called Peacocks are actually the Great Bustard once found in the region. The great bustard had multicolored tail feathers but shorter than a peacocks and more like a Turkey's. Izady, The Kurds. Pg. 156.

  • Yezidism is one of the three Kurdish religions commonly called the Cult of Angels. Malak Tawas or Lucifer as we know him was the first Archangel of the Great Creating Spirit or God as we know him. Malak Tawas was given dominion over earth. He is often represented as a great bird usually called a peacock but Izady speculates the bird is actually a great bustard. Izady, The Kurds. Pg. 156.

  • Alevism is one of the three Kurdish religions commonly called the Cult of Angels. The are also called the "deifiers of Ali" and suggest that Ali and Mohammed were temporal manifestations of the same spirit being which they refer to as Alimohammed. Shah Ismail would refer to himself as Alimohammad suggesting his own . Izady, The Kurds. Pg. 150.

  • The Yezidi cap is the same as the Mithras cap. Izady, The Kurds. Pg. 260

Yohe, Ralph S. (Deceased)

  • Ralph Yohe (Deceased), Madison, Wisconsin.
  • Well known dog breeder and agricultural expert, as well as journalist and editor of the Wisconsin Agriculturist.
  • Traveled extensively in the Middle East and North Africa and gained first-hand knowledge of most of the rug producing countries. Interested in the rugs and flatwoven objects of the nomad and peasant populations of Turkey and Iran. .
  • Trustee of the Textile Museum, Washington, D.C.
  • Participated in field study of weaving villages in Turkey which resulted in the book "Flowers of the Yayla" with Tony Landreau.
  • Extensively studied Moroccan rugs on site with the legendary William Russell Pickering as well as Russell's daughter Brooke
  • The Joseph V. McMullan Award
  • Pickering, Brooke, Pickering, W. Russell, Yohe, Ralph S. "Moroccan Carpets"
  • Pickering, W. Russell. "don't forget to smell the flowers along the way"s.
  • Jones, H. McCoy. and Yohe, Ralph S. Turkish Rugs.
  • Yuruk: The Nomadic Weaving Traditions in the Middle East, Catalogue of an Exhibition, with A. Landreau and R. Tschebull, Pittsburgh, 1978.
  • Ralph S. Yohe,"Moroccan Rugs". Washington DC: ICOC 1980.
  • Ralph S. Yohe, "Fieldwork In Eastern Anatolia". Washington DC: ICOC 1980.


  • Guide to Yomut Weaving
  • Yomut is also another common spelling. Yomud is a dialect of Turkmen a Turkic language. Yomud is the dialect the Russians used for publishing in Turkmen so many people assume it was the chief Turkmen dialect. The facts do not bear that out.
  • As weavers the Yomud use the widest range of colors and are likely to use various shades of browns and reddish browns.
  • In color usage bright red is seen as a sign of age. A dark blue outer guard and a lighter blue inner guard is also seen as a sign of age.
  • The Yomud consist of the Atabey and the Jafarbey tribes. They are mostly settled very few are still migratory herders.

Yousef, Ramzi.

  • Ramzi Yousef was al-Qaeda operative who in the late 1980s worked with the Abu Sayyaf Group to blow up airliners in the Phillipines. Ramzi Yousef was later jailed for his role in bombing the World Trade Center in 1993.

Young, Andrew Jackson, "Andy". Jr,

  • Male Afro-American born in New Orleans in march 12, 1932.
  • Civil-rights activist in the 1960s.
  • Georgia congressman 1973-77.
  • Permanent representative (Ambassador) to the United Nations 1977-79
  • Young, Andrew Jackson, Jr.
  • Mayor of Atlanta 1982-89
  • Ran for and lost the Democratic nomination for Governor of Georgia in 1990.

Yuan Dynasty

  • Yuan Dynasty (Mongol) (1279 - 1368)
  • The Yuan were the descendents of Cengiz Qan by way of his grandson Kubila Qan. While Chinese apologists like to portray the Yuan as more of an army of occupation than a true dynasty it was a period of great artistic achievement. With all Asia open to trade and travel there were rapid exchanges of design and technique. China gained from the cross-pollination with West Asia and the Middle East.
  • Beijing Opera was invented during the Yuan. Condensed China
  • The Yuan overthrew the Sung Dynasty.


  • Oy (Yurt)
  • Yurt is often used to describe a round wooden ribbed felt covered portable house. In some usage’s it also refers to that which the man controls. In that context Yurt means home family, livestock and land. In Il-Khanid times the Il-Khans yurt was all of Persia. The felt is sheep's wool.
Guide to The Persian Carpets
Persian Oriental Rugs and Carpets
Southwest Asia Time Line
Guide to Rugs & Books
Giude to new Trurkmen Rugs site, Barry O'Connell Jr
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